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Ajoyib narsalar: Xovard Karterning Tutanxamon qabrini topishi


Qirol Tutanxamon xazinalarini buyuk kashfiyotchisi Xovard Karter 1874 yil 9 -mayda Angliyaning Kensington shahrida Samuel Jon va Marta Joys (Sands) Karterda tug'ilgan. Kasal, uyda o'qigan bola, Karter otasi Viktoriya davrining mohir rassomidan rasm chizish va bo'yashni o'rgandi. Bu ko'nikmalar Xovard Karterga arxeolog sifatida karerasida yordam berdi, rangli fotosurat yo'q bo'lgan paytda ishladi.

Uning Misrshunoslikka bo'lgan ishtiyoqi yoshligida, lord Amxerst saroyida joylashgan Misr qadimiy buyumlarining katta kollektsiyasini guvohi bo'lganidan keyin uyg'ongan, u uni Londonda joylashgan Misrni tadqiq qilish jamg'armasi a'zosi Persi Edvard Nyubri bilan tanishtirgan. Newberry o'sha paytda Fond nomidan Misr qabrlari ichidagi san'atni nusxalash uchun rassom izlayotgan edi.

Govard Karter birinchi marta 1891 yil oktyabr oyida Misrga tashrif buyurgan, 17 yoshida Iskandariyaga kelgan. U Beni Hasandagi O'rta Shohlik qabrlarida ishlay boshladi. Uch oy o'tgach, yosh rassom buyuk Flinders Petridan dala arxeologiyasi va qazish ishlarini o'rganayotgan edi. Petri davrida Xovard Karter rassomdan misrshunoslikka aylandi.

Shunga qaramay, Xovard Karterning karerasi meteorik tezlik bilan boshlanib, Luksordagi Deyr-al-Bahari shahridagi Xatsepsut o'lik ibodatxonasining bosh rejissyori va nazoratchisi bo'ldi va 25 yoshida Yuqori Misr yodgorliklari bosh inspektori etib tayinlandi. Misr qadimiy yodgorliklar xizmati direktori Gaston Maspero.

Bu Misrshunos Xovard Karter uchun hamma narsa yomon tomonga o'zgargan payt. Uning "o'jar" fe'l -atvori va shaxsiy martaba va metodologiyaga bo'lgan shaxsiy qarashlari uni boshqa arxeologlar va amaldorlar bilan ziddiyatga olib keldi. Miloddan avvalgi 1905 yilda, ba'zi yuqori frantsuz sayyohlari bilan janjallashib, yuqori idoralarga shikoyat qilib, Karterga kechirim so'rashni buyurdi va rad etdi. Uning rad etishi tufayli unchalik muhim bo'lmagan vazifalarni bajarishga majbur bo'ldi va bu uning iste'fosiga sabab bo'ldi. Istiqbolli Misrshunos o'zini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun badiiy iste'dodiga murojaat qilishi kerak edi.

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Biroq, Maspero Xovard Karterni unutmadi va uni miloddan avvalgi 1908 yilda Karnarvonning 5 -chi grafi Jorj Edvard Stenxop Molinux Gerbert bilan tanishtirdi. Lord Karnarvon o'pka kasalligiga yordam berish uchun har yili qishda shifokorga Misrga tashrif buyurishni buyurgan.

Bu ikki kishining g'ayrioddiy munosabatlari, misrshunosning qat'iyatli irodasi va homiysi ko'rsatgan ishonch barcha davrlarning eng mashhur arxeologik kashfiyotini yaratdi.

Govard Karter Carnarvon homiyligida olib borilgan qazish ishlarini nazorat qilgan va miloddan avvalgi 1914 yilga kelib, o'z homiysi shaxsiy kollektsiyasi uchun qadimiy narsalarni saqlagan. Ammo uning haqiqiy orzusi Misr tarixining shonli davri bo'lgan 18 -sulolaning qadimgi yosh fir'avnining qabrini topish edi.

Tutanxamon yoki Qirol Tut ismining uyga tarjima qilinishidan oldin, bu fir'avn birinchi marta miloddan avvalgi 1905 yilda amerikalik misrshunos Teodor Devis tomonidan topilgan shohning ismi yozilgan kichik fayans chashka orqali ma'lum bo'lgan. Devis Tutanxamon va uning vorisi Ay ismli oltin folga solingan kichkina keshni o'z ichiga olgan bo'sh bitta xonani (KV58) topgach, Tutanxamonning talon -taroj qilingan qabrini topdim deb o'yladi.

Karter ham, Karnarvon ham, Devis KV58 aslida ular qabr bo'lgan deb taxmin qilishda xato qilgan deb gumon qilishgan, chunki Tutanxamonning mumiyasi miloddan avvalgi 1881 yilda Deyr -el -Bahari yoki KV35 (Amenxotep II) da topilgan qirollik mumiyalarining omborlari orasida topilmagan. ) milodiy 1898 yilda. Tutanxamunning yo'qolgan jasadi, qadimgi ruhoniylar qirollik mumiyalarini himoya qilish uchun yig'ishganda, uning qabri bezovta qilinmaganligini anglatishi mumkin edi. Bundan tashqari, qabrning joylashgan joyi unutilgan bo'lishi mumkin va shuning uchun uni qadim zamonlarda talashmagan.

Mavsum o'tgandan keyin, boshqa qidiruvni davom ettira olmaydigan Lord Karnarvon umidini uzib, Britaniyaga qaytdi. Ammo Karter taslim bo'lmadi va o'z xo'jayinini oxirgi imkoniyatga ko'ndirdi.

1922 yil 1 -noyabrda qazish mavsumi boshlanganidan atigi uch kun o'tgach, Xovard Karter qadimiy qoldiqlarni qabr qurilishidan tozalashdan keyin topgan platformaga qadam qo'ydi. Bu cho'kib ketgan zinapoyaning birinchi qadami edi, u sekin va ehtiyotkorlik bilan qazilganidan so'ng, jamoani birinchi marta qirol Tutankamunning buzilmagan qirollik muhrlariga guvoh bo'ldi. Karter o'z homiysiga yuborgan telegrammada shunday yozilgan edi: "Nihoyat, vodiyda ajoyib kashfiyot qildi; muhrlari buzilmagan ajoyib qabr; sizning kelishingiz uchun xuddi shunday qayta qoplangan; tabriklayman. "

Xovard Karter hayotidagi bu muhim voqea uchun lord Karnarvonning kelishini kutib, 15 ta mashaqqatli kunlarga chidashga to'g'ri keldi. Tozalash ishlari qayta boshlandi va 26 -noyabr kuni tushdan keyin Xovard Karter muhrlangan eshik oldida kichik bir teshik ochdi, sham qo'ydi va qorong'i qabrga qaradi. Kutishga arzigulik edi, chunki qirollik qabrining muhrlari ortida "ajoyib narsalar" bo'lgan.


1922 yil 4 -noyabrda ingliz arxeologi Xovard Karter Misr va Shohlar vodiysida Tutanxamon fir'avni qabriga kirishni topdi.

Chuqurroq qazish

Bola Fir'avn Tutanxamon hukmronlik qildi. Miloddan avvalgi 1332 yildan 1323 yilgacha, uning ismi Amun xudosining tirik qiyofasi degan ma'noni anglatadi. Tut ”, ehtimol, noyob fir'avn Akhenatenning o'g'li edi, u Nefertitining eri edi, u o'zi Afrikaning Top 10 hukmdorlari, qirollari va imperatorlari ro'yxatida ettinchi o'rinda turadi. Tut ’ ning otasining o'ziga xosligi diniy inqilobga urinishdan kelib chiqadi. Tut ’ ning otasi Aten deb nomlangan quyosh diskiga sajda qilishga e'tibor qaratishga harakat qildi, bunda ba'zi olimlar qadimgi misrliklar bilan bog'liq bo'lgan oddiy shirkni rad etib, tavhidning bir turi deb bilishadi. Tutni hatto dastlab Tutanxaten, ya'ni Atenning tirik qiyofasi deb atashgan, otasi vafotidan keyin an'anaviy politeizm tiklanganidan keyin ismini o'zgartirgan. U taxtga to'qqiz yoki o'n yoshli bola sifatida o'tirganini va o'n sakkiz yoshida vafot etganini hisobga olsak, u qisqa hukmronligi davrida ko'p qarorlarni o'zi qabul qilmagan bo'lishi mumkin. Bundan tashqari, yosh fir'avn, qarindoshlarning qarindoshlari sirli sharoitda, ehtimol tasodifan vafot etdi, garchi ba'zilar aybdor sifatida suiqasdni taklif qilsalar.

Keyinchalik Tut mumiyalanib, dafn qilindi. U asosan XX asr boshlarida Karnarvon Earl va Xovard Karter tadqiqotlariga qadar tarixiy izohga aylandi. Garchi bu sana yuz yildan oshiq vaqt oldin Karter qabrni kashfiyot qilgan bo'lsa-da, u yana bir necha hafta ichkariga nazar tashlamadi. Keyin, 1922 yil 26 -noyabrda u ichkariga qaradi, ehtimol ming yillar ichida birinchi marta qilgan odam. Karnarvon Karterdan biror narsa ko'ryapsizmi deb so'radi. Karter javob berdi: “ Ha, ajoyib narsalar. ”

Xovard Karter va uning sheriklari qabristonda ziyoratgoh eshiklarini ochishdi (1923 yilgi voqeani 1924 yilda qayta tiklash)

Karterning qabrdagi ko'plab narsalarni kataloglash bo'yicha puxta ishi qadimgi Misr haqidagi bilimlarimizni ancha oshirdi. Tutning mumiyasining topilishi, yigitning yuzining chiroyli niqobi va asrlar davomida bezovtalanmagan ta'sirli sarkofagi, shubhasiz, butun Misrshunoslikdagi eng mashhur kashfiyotlardir. Qabrdan topilgan asarlar butun dunyo bo'ylab namoyish etilgan va o'nlab filmlar va hatto qo'shiqlarga ilhom bergan.

Shunga qaramay, Karter va qabrga aloqador bo'lganlar qandaydir la'natlangan degan da'volarga kelsak, bu shunchaki afsona …

Talabalarga (va obunachilarga) savol: Nega King Tut qabrini kashf qilish Misrshunoslik uchun muhim edi? Iltimos, ushbu maqola ostidagi sharhlar bo'limida bizga xabar bering.

Agar siz ushbu maqolani yoqtirgan bo'lsangiz va yangi maqolalar haqida xabar olishni xohlasangiz, obuna bo'lishni xush ko'rasiz Tarix va sarlavhalar bizni yoqtirish orqali Facebook va bizning homiylarimizdan biriga aylaning!

Sizning o'quvchilaringiz juda qadrlanadi!

Tarixiy dalillar

Tut ’s qabrining topilishi eng muhim 10 ta tarixiy topilmalar ro'yxatida ettinchi o'rinni egallaydi. Bu nihoyatda muhim topilma haqida qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun quyida keltirilgan kitoblarni o'qing.

Karter, Xovard va A.C. Meys. Tutanxamon qabrining ochilishi. Dover nashrlari, 1977.


Tutanxamon qabrining ochilishi

Xovard Karter va boshqalar Tutanxamon qabrining ochilishis, afsuski, arxeologiyaning noma'lum klassikasi. Garchi u bola fir'avn Tutanxamenning qabrini kashf etgan va qazgan bo'lsa -da, Karter hech qachon munosib obro'sini olmagan. Garchi u Yel va Madrid universitetidan unvon olgan bo'lsa -da, u o'z mamlakatida hech qachon etarlicha hurmatga sazovor bo'lmagan, chunki u (1) quyi sinflardan bo'lgan va (2) o'ziga xos xarakterga ega edi.

Men hech qachon Govard Karter asarini tasvirlaydigan arxeologiya asarini o'qiganimga shubha qilaman Tutanxamon qabrining ochilishis, afsuski, arxeologiyaning noma'lum klassikasi. Garchi u bola fir'avn Tutanxamenning qabrini kashf etgan va qazgan bo'lsa -da, Karter hech qachon munosib obro'sini olmagan. Garchi u Yel va Madrid universitetidan mukofot olgan bo'lsa -da, u o'z mamlakatida hech qachon etarlicha hurmatga sazovor bo'lmagan, chunki u (1) quyi sinflardan bo'lgan va (2) o'ziga xos xarakterga ega edi.

Men hech qachon arxeologiyaning uzoq o'tmishni qazib olishda qanday g'amxo'rlik qilishni tasvirlagan asarini o'qiganimga shubha qilaman. Fir'avnning charm buyumlari, to'qimachilik va papiruslari tuproqqa aylanganda nima qilish kerak? Minglab boncuklar, ularni bir -biriga bog'lab turgan iplar chirigan bo'lsa -chi?

Karter 1923 yilda qabrni kashf qilishiga dunyo miqyosidagi munosabatiga javoban shoshgan kitobida, u faqat qabrning old qismi va qo'shimchasini tasvirlab bergan - u hali qabrni qazib chiqmagan edi. Ish unga yana sakkiz yoki to'qqiz yil kerak edi. Hatto kamerada topilgan qabr buyumlarini qisman o'rganishda ham, Karter har qadamda qilingan g'amxo'rlikni tasvirlab beradi.

Bu kitobni qadimgi Misrga qiziqqan har bir kishi o'qishga loyiqdir. . Ko'proq

Hech narsa ko'rmayapsizmi? Ha, ajoyib narsalar - Xovard Karter

Misrlik bola Fir'avn Tutanxamenning (deyarli) buzilmagan qabrini kashf etgan Govard Karterning birinchi qo'li. Bu Govardning birinchi kashfiyoti va keyingi qazish ishlari va shaxsiy hisobi paytida his qilgan his -tuyg'ulari yurakdan aytilgan. Agar sizda arxeologiyaga qiziqish bo'lsa, bu kitob o'qilishi shart.

Xovard Karterning so'zlarini yakunlashga ijozat bering:

Hech narsa ko'rmayapsizmi? Ha, ajoyib narsalar - Xovard Karter

Misrlik bola Fir'avn Tutanxamenning (deyarli) buzilmagan qabrini kashf etgan Govard Karterning birinchi qo'li. Bu Govardning birinchi kashfiyot va keyingi qazish ishlari va shaxsiy hisobi paytida his qilgan his -tuyg'ulari yurakdan aytilgan. Agar sizda arxeologiyaga qiziqish bo'lsa, bu albatta o'qilishi kerak bo'lgan kitob.

Xovard Karterning so'zlarini yakunlashga ijozat bering:


Va u ko'rgan narsa:

Manba: https://historiek.net. Ko'proq

Mutlaqo qiziqarli o'qish. Xovard Karter sizni o'zingizni xuddi o'sha erda his qilishni va qabrning ochilishini birinchi marta boshdan kechirishni biladi. Yaqinda buzilmagan qabrni topib, 19 -suloladan beri birinchi marta qadam qo'yganidan hayrat va hayajon hissi, men buni kitobning harakatlantiruvchi tomoni deb topdim.

Karter faqat kashfiyotga e'tibor qaratmaydi, shuningdek, tarixiy kontekst va Tutanxamon kashfiyoti haqida ma'lum bo'lgan bobga ega, bu men uchun juda qiziq edi. Govard Karter sizni o'zingizni borligingizdek his qilish va qabrning ochilishini birinchi marta boshdan kechirish tajribasiga ega. Yaqinda buzilmagan qabrni topib, 19 -suloladan beri birinchi marta qadam qo'yganidan hayrat va hayajon hissi, men buni kitobning harakatlantiruvchi tomoni deb topdim.

Karter nafaqat kashfiyotga e'tibor qaratadi, balki tarixiy kontekst va Tutanxamon kashfiyoti haqida ma'lum bo'lgan bo'limni o'z ichiga oladi. Menga ko'plab ob'ektlarni qanday saqlaganliklari haqidagi tushuntirishlar yoqdi, bu haqiqatan ham arxeologlarning muammosini bekor qilib qo'ydi va yotoqda faqat oltin haqida qayg'urdi!

Mening yagona tanqidim shundaki, ular dafn xonasini ochganlarida tugaydi, shuning uchun faqat Antechamera tavsifi bor. Menimcha, boshqa jild bor (bu kitobning nashrida "Tutankamun qabrining birinchi jildi" deb yozilgan) - men bir xil sharhlarda xuddi shu umidsizlik haqida gapirganini ko'rganman, shuning uchun ikkinchi jildni va hikoyaning davomini o'qing! Men hali buni qilmaganman).

Umuman olganda, o'qish juda qiziqarli va zavqli edi, bu menga Govard Karterga va haqiqatan ham qazish ishlarida qatnashganlarga hasad qildi. Misrshunoslikka qiziqqan har bir kishi o'qishi shart. . Ko'proq

إقrؤa hذo كltكtab jy tعrfw كm jnا ظzmءzكf wf wff خlخlق ynظrwn جmyعa كff bbny قwاd لlmجd wحdy! نظره علي تاريخ وحضارة أمه سبقت جميع الأمم في كل شيء من حبات الخرز التي تزين أصغر قطعه فنيه إلي المقصورات الذهبيه المزينه بالنقوش والرسومات الحيه والتي تجسد حياة ملك عظيم وتاريخ بلد كانت عظيمه ..
Fltffw lk klal wwww fnntm fy kryk جlalة لlmlك twt خn آmwn ..

لقد أدركنا بشكل واضح جدآ أن أمامنا عملآ شاقآ وأن هناك آلاف الأطنان من الرديم ينبغي رفعها قبل أن نفكر في العثور علي أي شيء ولكن دائ إقرؤا هذا الكتاب كي تعرفوا كم كنا عظماء..كيف حقآ وقف الخلق ينظرون جميعا كيف أبني قواعد المجد وحدي! نظره علي تاريخ وحضارة أمه سبقت جميع الأمم في كل شيء من حبات الخرز التي تزين أصغر قطعه فنيه إلي المقصورات الذهبيه المزينه بالنقوش والرسومات الحيه والتي تجسد حياة ملك عظيم وتاريخ بلد كانت عظيمه ..
Fltffw lk klal wwww fnntm fy kryk جlalة لlmlك twt خn آmwn ..

لقد أدركنا بشكل واضح جدآ أن أمامنا عملآ شاقآ وأن هناك آلاف الأطنان من الرديم ينبغي رفعها قبل أن نفكر في العثور علي أي شيء ولكن دائمآ كان لدينا أمل في أنه ربما تكلل جهودنا في النهايه بالعثور علي مقبرة ملك ذو وضع خاص, وأن هذا الملك هو " Tugt خnخ آmwn "
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عند هذه اللحظه فإن الزمن كعامل مؤثر في حياة الإنسان يكون قد فقد معناه, فقد انقضت ثلاثة آلاف عام وربما أربعه منذ أن وطئت قدم إنسان لآخر مره الأرض التي نقف عليها.
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لقد كان المستوي الفني الذي شاهدناه بمثابة إعلان لنا عن الإمكانات غير المشكوك فيها للفن المصري القديم وأدركنا من خلال هذا المسح الأولي السريع أن دراسة هذا الموضوع ستنطوي علي تعديل إن لم يكن إنقلابآ كاملآ في كل أفكارنا القديمه.
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يوجد أمامنا الآن الباب المختوم المغلق وبفتحه نكون قد عبرنا قرونآ من الزمان وأصبحنا نقف قي حضرة ملك كان يحكم منذ ثلاثة آلاف عام, وكان إحساسي الشخصي وأنا أقف فوق المنصه الخشبيه خليطآ غريبآ من المشاعر, وعندئذ وبأيد مرتجفه ضربت أول ضربه.
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Menga bu kitob juda yoqdi. Bu 1977 yilgi Govard Karter respublikasi va 1923 yilgi asl nusxasi, u Karter va aposs kashfiyotining 50 yilligiga bag'ishlangan, Misrda qirol Tutenkaxem va aposs qiroli vodiysining ochilishi va ochilishi haqidagi 1923 yilgi asl nashr.

Bu kitobga mening yagona e'tirozim shundaki, dastlabki kirish so'zidan va kirish so'zidan tashqari, yana 50 yillik o'qishdan so'ng Tutenkaxem haqidagi hikoyani yangilaydigan yana bir kirish bor, shuning uchun 2 kirish va kirish so'z 75 sahifani egallaydi, bu kitob menga juda yoqdi. . Bu 1977 yilda Govard Karterning 1923 yildagi asl nashri bo'lib, u Karter kashfiyotining 50 yilligiga bag'ishlangan, Misr qiroli vodiysida qirol Tutenkaxem qabrining ochilishi va ochilishi haqidagi 1923 yilda nashr etilgan.

Bu kitobga mening yagona e'tirozim shundaki, dastlabki kirish so'zidan va kirish so'zidan tashqari, yana 50 yillik o'qishdan so'ng Tutenkaxem haqidagi hikoyani yangilaydigan yana bir kirish bor, shuning uchun go'shtga kirishdan oldin 2 kirish va kirish so'z 75 sahifani egallaydi. hikoyaning. Tan olaman, bu kirish uchun pul sarflagan Lord Kardovanning qisqacha tarjimai holi bo'lgan asl kirish so'zini o'tkazib yubordim.

Haqiqiy hikoya Tutenkaxem hukmronligi davrida Misrning tarixiy konteksti haqida qisqacha hikoya bilan boshlanadi. Bu, asosan, uning ota -onasi va Misr taxtiga da'vosi haqida ma'lum bo'lgan narsalarni aytadi. Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, bu tarixiy bayon keng qamrovli emas, chunki bu kitobning maqsadi emas.

Hikoya keyinchalik Karterning qabrni qidirishdagi harakatlari bilan bog'liq. O'sha paytda barcha arxeologlar shoh Tutenkaxem qabrining hali ham aniqlanmaganligini bilishar edi, lekin Karter qirollar vodiysida qolgan o'rganilmagan erlarni o'qish qobiliyatiga ega bo'lib, uni topishga muvaffaq bo'lgan.

Kitobda qabrning haqiqiy topilishi, ochilishi va hujjatlari tasvirlangan. Qabrdagi xazinalarning tavsiflari va fotosuratlari, ularning topilmalarini saqlab qolish uchun ko'p vaqt va mashaqqatli sa'y -harakatlar o'qishni hayratda qoldiradi.

Karterning topilishining 100 yilligi yaqinlashar ekan, davom eting va kashfiyot qilgan odamning birinchi qo'li bilan yozilgan hayajonni boshdan kechiring. . Ko'proq


Qabr la'natlanganmi?

Keyingi yillarda qabr to'liq qazib olindi, uning tarkibi tahlil qilindi va butun dunyodagi olomonni hayratda qoldirdi. Tutanxamenning jasadi jiddiy sinovlardan o'tkazildi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, u ota -onasining yaqin qarindoshligi tufayli ko'plab genetik kasalliklarga duch kelgan va bu bezgak bilan birgalikda uning erta o'limiga sabab bo'lgan.

Tutanxamen qabri hamma vaqtlarning eng mashhur arxeologik kashfiyotlaridan biri bo'lib qolmoqda.

Qabr topilganidan keyin paydo bo'lgan afsonalardan biri shundaki, u la'natlangan. Uning qazishida qatnashganlarning ko'pchiligi g'alati va omadsiz taqdirlarga duch kelishdi: ishtirok etgan 58 kishidan 8 tasi keyingi o'n yil ichida vafot etdi, shu jumladan lord Karnarvonning o'zi ham, olti oy o'tgach qon zaharlanishidan vafot etdi.

Ba'zi olimlar xonada radiatsiya yoki zahar bo'lishi mumkin deb taxmin qilishdi: buni isbotlovchi hech qanday dalil yo'q va ko'pchilik "la'nat" g'oyasini o'sha davr gazetalari voqealarni shov -shuvli qilish uchun ixtiro qilgan deb o'ylashadi. Boshqa qabrlarga, ehtimol, qabr qaroqchilarining oldini olish uchun, kiraverishda "qarg'ishlar" yozilgan.


Tutanxamon qabrining ochilishi

Lord Karnarvon (chapda) va ekskavator Xovard Karter Tutanxamon qabrini topish uchun hamkorlik qilishdi. (Tasvir: Garri Burton (Fotosuratchi)/Jamoat mulki)

Lord Karnarvon-Xovard Karter hamkorligi

Lord Carnarvon, mashinasi Angliyada ro'yxatga olingan ikkinchi mashina bo'lgan, tarixda birinchi avtohalokatga uchragan. Va eng boy inglizlar singari, u sog'ayish uchun Misrning Asvan shahriga bordi. U mamlakatni juda qiziq deb topdi va u erda qolib qazish ishlarini olib borishga qaror qildi.

Shunday qilib, u rasmlar sotish orqali omon qolishga harakat qilayotgan ishsiz ekskavator Xovard Karterni yolladi. Ammo ular Qirollar vodiysida qazish ishlarini olib bora olmadilar, chunki imtiyoz Teodor Devisga tegishli edi. Keyin ular boshqa joylarda qazishdi. Ammo besh yildan so'ng, ular ko'p narsani topa olmagani uchun taslim bo'lishdi.

Vaziyat 1917 yilda o'zgardi. Karter-Karnarvon jamoasi Shohlar vodiysini qazish uchun ruxsat oldi, chunki Teodor Devis imtiyozdan voz kechdi. Devis Vodiyni charchagan deb o'yladi va hech narsa qolmadi. Karter va Karnarvon bir maqsad bilan murosaga kelishdi: Tutanxamon qabrini qidirish.

Tutanxamon qabrining buyuk kashfiyoti

Karter qazish ishlarida uzoq vaqt tajribasi va bu hududda bosh inspektor bo'lgani uchun Shohlar vodiysi haqida keng ma'lumotga ega edi. U vodiyning aniq xaritasini tuzdi va qazish kerak bo'lgan har bir joyni aniqladi. Ular vodiyning har bir dyuymini, tog 'jinsiga qadar qazishni, uzoq vaqt qidirilgan Tutanxamon qabrini topishni rejalashtirdilar.

Tutanxamon qabri nihoyat 1922 yilda topilgan. (Tasvir: Roland Unger/ CC BY-SA 3.0/ Public domain)

Birinchi jahon urushi o'z missiyasini to'xtatgan bo'lsa -da, ular 1922 yilda muvaffaqiyatga erishdilar. Jamoa bir necha yillar davomida vodiyni qazib olib, katta yutuqlarga erishmagan. Nihoyat, Lord Karnarvon hafsalasi pir bo'ldi va taslim bo'lishga qaror qildi. Ammo Karter turib oldi va unga yana bir mavsum berishni so'radi. U hatto pul bo'lmasa -da, to'lashga va'da berdi. Lord Karnarvon rozi bo'ldi va ular yana qazish ishlariga qaytishdi.

Karter topgan birinchi narsa qabrga olib boradi deb o'ylagan qadam edi. Hamma zinapoyalarni ochganlarida, ular zinapoyaning oxirida devor topdilar. Devor muhrlangan edi, bu esa Karterga buzilmagan qabr topilganiga ishonch hosil qildi. U Angliyadagi Karnarvonga sim o'tkazdi va darhol Misrga kelishini so'radi.

Carnarvon kelganida, ular devordagi kichik bir teshikni kesib tashlashdi. Karter qabr teshigidan qarab, ajoyib narsalarni ko'rganini aytdi. U hamma joyda oltinning yaltiroqligini ko'rganini aytdi. Bu oltin bilan ishlangan buyumlarga to'la qabrning ochilishining boshlanishi edi.

Bu video seriyali transkript Qadimgi Misr tarixi. Buni Buyuk Kurslar Plus -da tomosha qiling.

Tutanxamon maqbarasi

Kirishdan so'ng, birinchi xonada Tutanxamon yotqizilgan yotoq kabi mebellar to'la edi. Xonani tozalash uchun ularga deyarli bir yil kerak bo'ldi. Oltin yaltiroq ulkan ziyoratgoh butun dafn xonasini egallagan edi. Yog'och ziyoratgohni demontaj qilish qiyin edi, chunki yog'och 1000 yoshda edi va ular juda ehtiyot bo'lishlari kerak edi. Nihoyat, Karter uni demontaj qilgach, uning ichida yana bir ziyoratgohni topdi. Va keyin, uning ichida yana ikkita ziyoratgoh bor edi.

Qabrni tozalash va Tutanxamonning mumiyasiga erishish uchun Xovard Karter jamoasiga deyarli bir yil kerak bo'ldi. (Rasm: The Times/Public domeniga eksklyuziv)

To'rtinchi ziyoratgoh ichida Karter ajoyib narsani - chiroyli sarkofagni topdi. Uning ichida tobutlar bor edi, ular bir -birining ichiga joylashtirilgan edi. Nihoyat, u tosh lahitga keldi, uni ochish juda qiyin edi. Lekin u nihoyat uni ochishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Nihoyat, ular mumiyam qabrda bo'lgan birinchi fir'avn Tutanxamonning mumiyasini topishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi, u ham buzilmagan holda topilgan.

Tutanxamon: sir

Qabrni kashf etgach, Karter bir necha bor Tutanxamon undan qochganini aytdi. U bu bilan nima qildi? Shu paytgacha Tutanxamon, podshoh, faqat sir edi, faqat ism. Ammo Karter shunchaki xazina ovchisi emas edi. U bilim izlayotgan edi va Karterdan va boshqalardan chetda qolgan narsa shundaki, ular hali ham Tutanxamun haqida hech narsa bilishmagan. Butun qabrda papiruslar yo'q edi. Uning ota -onasi haqida ko'proq ma'lumot beradigan hech narsa yo'q edi. Aslida, bugungi kungacha arxeologlar Tutanxamen nasli haqida munozaralarni davom ettirmoqdalar.

Bu g'alati tuyuladi, shunday emasmi? Fir'avn o'z qabrida minglab narsalar bilan dafn etilgan, hech qanday mablag 'sarflanmagan va uning kimligi haqida bizga hech qanday tarixiy ma'lumot yo'q.

Qabr haqida hayratlanarli boshqa narsalar bor edi. Masalan, qabr ichidan toj topilmadi. Shunga qaramay, u Misr shohi edi. Ularda uning taxti va chaqaloq sandallari bor edi. Hatto ular bolaligida va o'g'il-podshohligida uning chaqaloq taxtiga ega bo'lishgan. Ammo uning toji qaerda edi? Buning mumkin bo'lgan izohi, ehtimol toj sehrli ob'ekt bo'lib, shohdan shohga o'tib ketgan. Shunday qilib, fir'avn o'zi bilan narigi dunyoga olib keta olmaydigan yagona narsa shu edi. Ammo Tutanxamon hamma narsani oxirat dunyosiga olib ketishga harakat qildi.

Karter kashfiyoti, shubhasiz, juda qimmatli kashfiyot edi, lekin u Tutanxamon haqida ko'p narsa aytmagan - bu sir hal qilinmagan.

Tutanxamon qabrining ochilishi haqidagi umumiy savollar

Lord Karnarvon boy ingliz edi, u baxtsiz hodisadan keyin sog'ayish uchun Misrga borgan. U qazish ishlariga qiziqish uyg'otdi va Tutanxamon qabrini ochish uchun Xovard Karterning qazishmalarini moliyalashtirdi.

Tutanxamon qabri birinchi marta 1922 yilda topilgan. Biroq, qabr buzilmaganligi sababli, ekskavatorlar dafn xonasiga yetib kelish uchun bir yil vaqt ketgan.

Tutanxamon - Shohlar vodiysidagi eng muhim shohlardan biri. Uning ahamiyati uning qabrini kashf qilish usulidan kelib chiqadi. Uning qabri talon -taroj qilingan boshqa qirollik qabrlardan farqli o'laroq, butunlay buzilmagan edi.


Xovard Karter

Xovard Karter 1874 yil 9 mayda Londonning Kensington shahrida muvaffaqiyatli rassom Samuel Karterda tug'ilgan. U kasal bola edi va uni Norfolkdagi xolalari bilan yashashga yuborishdi, u erda xususiy uyda o'qishdi. U bolaligidan badiiy ijod bilan shug'ullangan va otasi taniqli misrshunosni chizganida, uning bu sohaga bo'lgan umrbod qiziqishi alangalanadi.

Karter o'zining arxeologik ishini 1891 yilda, 17 yoshida, otasi uni arxeologga rassom sifatida ishga joylashtirgandan so'ng, Misrda boshlagan. U erda u miloddan avvalgi 2000 -yillarda O'rta Misr malikasining qabristoni Basi Hasanni qazish ustida ishlagan. Keyinchalik u Flinders Petrining qo'riqchisi bo'lishi kerak edi.

1899 yilda unga Misr qadimiy yodgorliklari xizmatida ishlash taklif qilindi, u mojaro natijasida 1905 yilda iste'foga chiqdi.

Bir necha yillar o'tgach, Karter, 1907 yilda, Karterning ishini davom ettirish uchun zarur bo'lgan mablag'ni etkazib berishga tayyor bo'lgan havaskor lord Karnarvon bilan tanishtirildi. Ko'p o'tmay, Karter lord Karnarvonning barcha qazish ishlariga rahbarlik qildi.

Lord Karnarvon Karterni Karter ilgari noma'lum bo'lgan fir'avn Tutanxamen qabrini qidirishni moliyalashtirdi, uning mavjudligini Karter kashf etdi.

1922 yil 6 -noyabrda Karter, Misrning Luksor shahri yaqinida, Shohlar vodiysida topilgan, Fir'avnning hali to'lanmagan yagona qabrini - Tutanxamen qabrini topdi.

1923 yil 16 -fevralda Karter dafn xonasini ochdi va birinchi marta Tutanxamon sarkofagini ko'rdi.

1932 yilda qazib olingan xazinalar va artefaktlar tufayli topilgan keng ko'lamli topilmalarni kataloglashtirgandan so'ng, Karter arxeologiyadan nafaqaga chiqdi va kollektsioner bo'ldi. U umrining so'nggi yillarini muzeylarda ishlagan va hatto AQShda bo'lib, Misr va Tutanxamon haqida ma'ruzalar qilgan, bu millatning mintaqaga bo'lgan qiziqishiga hissa qo'shgan.

Karter 1939 yilda 64 yoshida limfomadan Angliyada vafot etdi. U Londonning Putney Vale qabristoniga dafn qilindi.

Uning qabr toshida shunday yozilgan: "Ruhingiz tirik bo'lsin, siz millionlab yillar yashaysiz, Tivani yaxshi ko'radiganlar, yuzingizni shimoliy shamolga o'tirganingiz, ko'zlaringizni baxtga qaraganingiz" va "Ey tunda, qanotlaringni ustimga yoy. o'lmas yulduzlar ".

Google o'zining 138 yilligini 2012 yil 9 mayda maxsus doodle bilan nishonladi.


Tutanxamon: Fir'avn qabridan "ajoyib narsalar"

Xalqaro muzeylar institutining ushbu ajoyib sayohat ko'rgazmasi Misr sulolasining 18 -sulolasining sirli va boy yoshini jonlantiradi. O'n yil davomida, Misrdagi Fir'avn qishlog'ining hunarmandlaridan va Metropolitan San'at muzeyidan, Tutanhamonning ajoyib asarlari to'plami barcha zamonlarning eng boy arxeologik topilmalarini yaratadi.

Jonli matn bilan birga, Fir'avnning 100 ga yaqin muqaddas va shaxsiy mulki nusxalari, Tutanxamon hukmronligi davridagi tegishli artefaktlar bilan jihozlangan ushbu o'quv inshooti Govard Karterning qabrining tarixiy kashfiyotini ham, hayotini ham, davrini ham qayta tiklaydi. Fir'avn Tutanxamon. Ko'rgazmada oltin kanopik ziyoratgoh, fir'avnning ajoyib davlat aravasi, oltin mumiyali quti, uning taxti, bolalar uchun stul, balzamlanadigan divan, karavot, zargarlik buyumlari, ajoyib dafn marosimi niqobi va bejirim qirollik mumiyasi kabi ko'zoynaklar bor.

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Qirol Tutanxamon

Bu video o'quvchilarga qirol Tutanhamunning hayoti va o'limi haqida tushuncha beradi. Bu bizga qanday qilib Tutanxamon kabi fir'avnlar bilan dafn etilgan narsalar orqali Qadimgi Misr hayoti haqida bilib olganimizni tushuntiradi.

Biz shoh Tutanxamon qanday dafn etilganini, nima uchun u bilan qanday narsalar dafn etilganini va bu narsalar uning hayoti haqida bizga nimani aytishini bilib olamiz.

Biz uning qabri 1922 yilda topilgani va uni kim kashf qilgani haqida bilib olamiz. Biz a deb nomlangan asosiy manbani o'rganamiz shabti . Bu fir'avnlar bilan dafn etilgan va bizga Qadimgi Misr xalqining e'tiqodlari va urf -odatlari haqida aytib beradigan kichik bezaklar edi.

Biz podshoh Tutanxamunning qisqa umrini, sakkiz yoshida fir'avn bo'lishni va o'n sakkiz yoshida vafot etishni tasvirlaymiz.

Shuningdek, videoda qirol Tutanxamonning oyoqlari va egilgan umurtqa pog'onasi tufayli harakatchanligi bilan bog'liq qiyinchiliklar va g'azab va his -tuyg'ularni boshqarishda qanday qiyinchiliklarga duch kelganligi tasvirlangan!

O'qituvchi va#x27s eslatmalari

Bu videoda Qadimgi Misr va uning dafn etish jarayoni, ayniqsa, fir'avnlar uchun qanchalik muhim bo'lganligi tasvirlangan. Bu dafn jarayonini muhokama qilish uchun ishlatilishi mumkin va jarayonga tayyorgarlik ko'rish va uni amalga oshirish uchun qancha o'ylangan.

Bu o'quvchilarga o'tmish va bu tadqiqotda manbalarning rolini qanday bilishimizni tushunishga yordam beradi.

Biz shoh Tutanxamonning hayoti haqida uning qabridan topilgan manbalar - dafn niqobi, shabti va boshqa narsalar. Bu o'quvchilarga tarixiy tadqiqotlarni o'tkazishda manbalarning o'rni va ishonchliligini o'rganish imkoniyatini beradi.

O'quvchilar kashfiyot paytida Govard Karter kabi ilk tadqiqotchilar qanday his qilganliklarini muhokama qilishlari mumkin, shuningdek, qoldiqlardan o'rganayotganda topilgan narsalarni saqlab qolish orqali tarixiy qoldiqlarga qanday sezgir munosabatda bo'lishlarini ko'rib chiqishlari mumkin.

Munozara uchun fikrlar (tarix bog'langan)

  • Qirol Tutanxamon kim bo'lgan?
  • Qirol Tutanxamon qabridan nima topilgan?
  • Qirol Tutanxamon qabrini kim kashf etdi?
  • Qirol Tutanxamun necha yoshida fir'avn bo'lgan?
  • Qirol Tutanxamun vafot etganida necha yoshda edi?
  • How heavy was the mask found in the tomb? Can you find something in your classroom that weighs the same?
  • How do some experts think King Tutankhamun died?

Suggested Activities (Cross Curricular opportunities)

Design and make a shabtiUsing illustrations from the animation, pupils are to design and then make a shabti using papier maché / clay. What style is used? What colours are used? What has it been designed to represent to the pupils? Once completed, pupils could present their shabti to their peers.

Pupil ParliamentKing Tutankhamun was a young pharaoh - a very young pharaoh. Pupils could explore if they were the Prime Minister, what decisions would they make about the running of the country. What would your five pledges be to make the country a better place? Each pupil to determine which peer they would vote for based on their pledges and determine the class victor!

Creative WritingWriting a diary entry as if the pupils were Howard Carter on the day of the discovery of the tomb of King Tutankhamun. What thoughts and feelings were going through his mind? How did he feel upon discovery? Did he have any idea of the scale of his discovery? What did the sources he discovered tell him?

Performing ArtsBuilding on the creative writing activity, can pupils in small groups develop a piece of drama to re-enact the discovery of the tomb? What feelings were going through the minds of members of the group? Use freeze frame techniques to help develop deeper thinking.

Material decayMany of the items in the tomb survived for thousands of years and were preserved to be discovered by Howard Carter and his team. Does it matter what material the items discovered were made of? Using a variety of classroom / everyday products (stick of chalk, piece of crockery, metal coin, sugar cube) can the pupils predict which will remain intact for the longest time when placed in a fizzy drink?

Curriculum Notes

This film is relevant for teaching History at KS2 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and 2nd Level in Scotland.


The fascination for Egyptian civilization

The Egyptian civilization will never cease to fascinate us with the complexity of its myths, elaborate funeral rituals, hieroglyphics and art that has remained unchanged for thousands of years, obeying strict formal principles, and that even today irresistibly attract us.

Mysterious and monumental, it was part of a culture based on polytheism, on the Nile and on after-life beliefs.

The passion for Egyptology sparked in 1798, when Napoleon arrived to Egypt, a forgotten civilization, with the French fleet.

His curiosity was aroused, resulting in several drawings of those peculiar monuments that were released as new culture discovered by him, in an attempt to increase his prestige and power.

Battle of the Pyramids, Louis-Joseph Watteau


I prefer reading


I visited the Melbourne Museum last week to see the exhibition, Tutankhamun & the Golden Age of the Pharoahs. This is apparently the last time the artefacts from Tutankhamun's tomb will leave Egypt and, as I'm unlikely to ever visit Egypt, I had to take the chance to see the treasures. It was an excellent exhibition. I took the audio tour narrated by Omar Sharif, &, as always, this added so much to the experience. I also find the audio tours useful because often the wall panels with information are lit so dimly that I can't read them. It was wonderful to be able to see, in the round, objects I'd only ever seen in books.

The highlight for me, even with all the gold, was a massive granite head of Akhenaten, who may have been Tutankhamun's father. He was certainly the father of Tutankhamun's young wife, Ankhesenamun. Akhenaten is an enigmatic figure who attempted a religious revolution by rejecting the many gods of Egypt in favour of one god, the Aten or sun disc. The art of his reign is also very unusual. Akhenaten & his wife, Nefertiti are often depicted with elongated bodies, long faces & protruding stomachs. The royal couple & their six daughters are often shown in very intimate settings, playing together & worshipping the sun.

Although Akhenaten's religious reforms didn't last, some of the artistic influence is still apparent in the reign of Akhenaten's successor, Tutankhamun. In the exhibition was a gold shrine (it's pictured on the cover of Howard Carter's book above). Tutankhamun & Ankhesenamun are depicted in similarly intimate ways. She kneels before her husband & hands him arrows when he's hunting. Ankhesenamun anoints Tutankhamun with oil. Their postures are relaxed & familiar. We don't know much about Tutankhamun's short reign or their relationship but these images are very touching & suggest that they had a happy relationship.

I've had this copy of Howard Carter's book on the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb on the tbr shelves for quite a while. But, this only proves my point that every book on my overflowing tbr shelves will be read one day when the time is right. Unfortunately I only have Vol 1 of Carter's 3 volume work on the tomb but I also looked through Nicholas Reeves's book, The Complete Tutankhamun, which has also been on my shelves for a very long time. Howard Carter was, of course, the archaeologist who discovered the tomb in 1922. He was working for Lord Carnarvon, whose death from an infected mosquito bite only months after the discovery led to the stories about the curse of the tomb that have kept conspiracy theorists happy ever since.

The story of the discovery of Tutankhamun's tomb is like a fairy tale. It was the last season that Carter & Carnarvon were going to dig in the Valley of the Kings. Carter had discovered a few clues that suggested to him that there was still at least one more tomb in the vicinity & he believed that it was the tomb of Tutankhamun, a shadowy figure from the Eighteenth Dynasty. His book was written just a year after the discovery & when Vol 1 was published, Carter had still not penetrated to the burial chamber. So, he had no idea of the richness of the sarcophagus or the beautiful gold mask that has become an iconic symbol of Egypt. Carter begins with a history of the Valley of the Kings, the site of the burials of many Pharoahs, most of them plundered by tomb robbers in antiquity. The wonder of his discovery is apparent as he begins his story,

Let me try and tell the story of it all. It will not be easy, for the dramatic suddenness of the initial discovery left me in a dazed condition, and the months that followed have been so crowded with incident that I have hardly had time to think. Setting it down on paper will perhaps give me a chance to realize what has happened and all that it means.

The initial discovery of a flight of stone steps leading to a tomb was exciting enough. There had been no indication that a tomb was there & the steps leading to a passageway filled with rubble was the first indication that there could be a tomb. When Carter's team removed the rubble & discovered a doorway with intact seals on it, his excitement grows. However, his patron, Lord Carnarvon, is in England so all work stops while Carter telegraphs the news & waits for Carnarvon's arrival. When Carnarvon & his daughter, Lady Evelyn Herbert, arrived, the scene was set for one of the most famous moments in archeology.

Slowly, desperately slowly it seemed to us as we watched, the remains of passage debris that encumbered the lower part of the doorway were removed, until at last we had the whole door clear before us. The decisive moment had arrived. With trembling hands I made a tiny breach in the upper left hand corner. Darkness and blank space, as far as an iron testing-rod could reach, showed that whatever lay beyond was empty, and not filled like the passage we had just cleared. widening the hole a little, I inserted the candle and peered in, Lord Carnarvon, Lady Evelyn and Callender standing anxiously beside me to hear the verdict. At first I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flame to flicker, but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues, and gold - everywhere the glint of gold. For the moment - an eternity it must have seemed to the others standing by - I was struck dumb with amazement, and when Lord Carnarvon, unable to stand the suspense any longer, inquired anxiously, "Can you see anything?" it was all I could do to get out the words, "Yes, wonderful things."

Apparently, Carter had help writing this account from a novelist, Percy White, & that passage shows the touch of the novelist, but it's still a dramatic & heart-stopping moment. The rest of this volume describes the removal of objects from the tomb, how every object seemed more amazing than the one before. The generosity of other archaeologists & museums is acknowledged as well as the torments Carter suffered from tourists & journalists eager to see the treasures & disrupting his work. It was fascinating to read of the discovery of several of the objects I'd seen in the exhibition & to see the photographs (only in black & white) & read the descriptions.

Carter describes the incredibly painstaking work of clearing this chamber. Objects had been thrown around by robbers as they frantically searched for portable gold objects to sell. One of the most fascinating finds was a bundle of cloth containing eight gold rings. These had been wrapped in the cloth by a robber who had left them behind, maybe he was disturbed. The method of wrapping valuables in a headcloth is exactly the same as Carter had seen in the markets of Egypt in his day. Carter's discipline was remarkable because, across the chamber, guarded by two life-sized statues of the pharoah, was a doorway leading, he hoped, to the burial chamber. Carter & his team painstakingly removed, photographed & documented every object in the chamber before approaching the doorway.

At the end of the book, Carter has cleared the first chamber & broken through this other doorway to reveal an enormous golden shrine. He knows that this part of the tomb is untouched by robbers because the seals are all intact so he knows that the burial chamber with the sarcophagus & mummy of Tutankhamun are within. He can have no idea of what he will find within.

I'm very keen to get hold of the other two volumes of this work now as I feel I'm leaving the story only half-told. Nicholas Reeves's book is a beautiful accompaniment as he describes & illustrates all the treasures of the tomb, but Howard Carter's first-hand account of his work is exhilarating to read.


Videoni tomosha qiling: КАНДАЙ КИЗГА УЙЛАНИШ КЕРАК -- ТАРИХИЙ НАСИХАТ (Yanvar 2022).