Ma `lumot

AM -426 to'qnashuvi - Tarix


Qarama -qarshilik II

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72; a. 1 40 mm; cl. Chaqqon)

Ikkinchi mojaro (AM-426) 1952 yil 16-dekabrda Kaliforniya shtatining Antioxiyadagi Fulton tersanesi tomonidan ishga tushirildi; kapitan Aldrixning rafiqasi E. T. Aldrich xonim homiylik qilgan; 1951 yil 23 martda topshirilgan, qo'mondonlik leytenant R.Y. Skott; va Tinch okean flotiga xabar berdi.

Mojaro g'arbiy sohilda 1954 yil 12 apreldan 1956 yil 4 yanvargacha davom etib, akustik diapazonli eksperimentlar, shovqinlarni kamaytirish tajribalari va minalar konlarini olib tashlash bilan shug'ullangan. U 1955 yil 7 fevralda MS0 426 sinfiga qayta tasniflandi. U 1956 yil 4 yanvarda Long -Bichdan Pearl -Harborga jo'nab ketdi, u erda 15 yanvardan 20 fevralgacha suv ostida suratga olish ishlari olib borildi. U 1 -mart kuni Long -Bichga qaytib keldi va aprel oyida San -Klement orolida zarba sinovlarini o'tkazdi. Mojaro San -Diyegodagi port mudofaa mashg'ulotlariga qo'shildi va boshqa mahalliy operatsiyalarni 1957 yil 5 -avgustgacha amalga oshirdi, u Long -Bichdan Pearl -Harbor, Miduey va Yokosukaga suzib, 31 -avgustga etib keldi. U Gonkong deb nomlangan Yaponiya suvlarida ishlagan va Xitoy Respublikasi kemalariga qo'shilib, Formosa yaqinidagi minalarni tozalash bo'yicha mashg'ulotlarda qatnashgan va yilning qolgan qismida g'arbiy sohilda operatsiya qilish uchun 1 -mart kuni Long -Bichga qaytgan. U 1960 yil 14 martda Uzoq Sharqda xizmatga qaytdi va 24 iyun kuni g'arbiy qirg'oqqa suzib ketishdan oldin Maniln, Gonkong Tayvan va Yaponiya portlariga qo'ng'iroq qildi. Mahalliy operatsiyalar 1960 yilning qolgan qismida qayta tiklandi.

Keyinchalik yo'lovchilarni Kahului va Xiloga olib borgan Avocet, 1937 yil 23-avgustdan 31-avgustgacha Pearl-Harborga qaytgunga qadar, oxirgi portda VP-lga qaragan. U u erdan 1-sentabr kuni frantsuz frigat shoallari uchun suzib ketdi va 19-sentabrgacha ketma-ket VP-8, VP-10, VP-6 va VP-4ni parvarish qildi va o'sha paytda flot havo bazasiga qaytdi. U Pearl -Harborda 15 oktyabrgacha, Amerika Samoasiga suzib ketguncha qoldi.

25-oktabr kuni Samoaning Pago-Pago shahriga etib kelgan Avocet 1938-yil fevraligacha portda stantsiya kemasi bo'lib xizmat qildi. 1938-yil 11-yanvarda Pan American Airways kompaniyasining Sikorskiy S-42B "Samoan Clipper" (NC 16734) Pago-Pagodan parvoz qildi. 0540 da, Yangi Zelandiyaga parvozining oxirgi bosqichida. 0608 da uchuvchi, kapitan Edvin C. Musik, neft sızıntısı haqida xabar berdi va u to'rtinchi raqamli dvigatelni o'chirib qo'ydi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, Musik "Clipper" olib ketadigan yoqilg'ining bir qismini jettison qilish uchun sayladi va 0842 yilda o'z niyatini rad etdi.

Musick 0842 translyatsiyasidan buyon samolyotdan hech qanday xabar olmagan holda, Avocet 1910 yilda Pago -Pagodan Tapu Tapu -Pointdan 12 mil shimolda suzib ketdi. Avocet 0606 -da neft bo'lagini va 0637 -da vayronalarni ko'rdi. Dvigatelini soat 0700 -da tushirib, samolyot samolyotining samolyotidan chiqqanligi aniqlandi. Avocet qidiruvni ertalabki soat davomida davom ettirdi, lekin 7 kishidan iborat ekipajdan tirik qolganlarning alomatlarini topa olmadi. Keyingi tergovlar shuni ko'rsatdiki, dvigatel egzozidan uchqun chiqqanida, Musick yoqib yuborgan yoqilg'ini yoqib yuborgan, bu kuchli portlashni keltirib chiqargan. Sikorskiy alohida parvozda.

1938 yil 5 -fevralda Samoa suvlaridan Pearl -Harborga etib borgan Avocet Fanning oroli orqali suzib, Honolulu pochta bo'limiga etkazib berish uchun pochta orqali jo'nab ketdi va 18 fevralda Pearl -Harborga etib keldi. Avocet-AM-19 dan AVP-4 ga kichik dengiz samolyotlari tenderini 1938 yil mart oyida qayta tasnifladi, 1938 yil 23 martda Frantsiya Frigat darvozasi Shoalsga qaytib, VP-8 ning ilg'or bazaviy evolyutsiyasini qo'llab-quvvatladi; Bu vaqt ichida u "Nautilus" suv osti kemasidan (SS-168) benzin oldi. 28 -mart kuni Frantsiya Frigat Shoalsidan jo'nab ketgan Avocet to'g'ridan -to'g'ri Oaxu sohilidagi Makua qishlog'iga yo'l oldi va 30 -kuni keldi. Ertasi kuni ertalab u halokatga uchragan VP-4 qayig'ini qutqarishga harakat qilib, radiochining jasadini topdi. u samolyot qoldiqlarini bortga 1 A -I ga ko'targan

Avocet iyul oyining o'rtalarida Pearl-Harbordan tashqarida mahalliy operatsiyalarni olib bordi, qisqa masofali jangovar amaliyotlarni o'tkazdi va Barbers Point yaqinida bombardimon nishonlarini joylashtirdi va qisqa vaqt ichida, 6-iyulda va 15-dan 20-iyulgacha qo'mondon uchun eng yaxshi salom bo'lib xizmat qildi. Patrul qanoti (PatWing) 2, kapitan Kennet Uiting. Ha, 1938 yil tugashidan oldin, Avocet Midwayda 25-27 iyul kunlari VP-6 va 25-27 oktyabr kunlari VP-4ni boshqaradigan ikkita asosiy bazaviy operatsiyalarni o'tkazdi.

Avocet 1939 yilning birinchi olti oyini Pearl-Harborda o'tkazdi, mahalliy evolyutsiyalarni rivojlangan bazaviy manevralar bilan-bir marta Hiloda, ikki marta Midueyda, bir marta frantsuz Frigate Shoalsda va Lisianski orolidagi tekshiruvda o'tkazdi. Bu vaqt ichida kapitan Uiting yana o'z bayrog'ini Avocetda uchirdi va kema har xil vaqtda P-4, 6, 8 va 10 ni qo'llab-quvvatladi.

1939 yil 23-iyunda San-Diyegoga Pearl-Harbordan jo'nab ketgan Avocet Mustaqillik kunida VP-1 samolyotini qo'riqlagan holda o'z manziliga etib keldi. Endi PatWing 1 ga tayinlangan
Dengiz samolyoti tenderi avgust oyining oxirigacha San -Diyegoda qoldi va o'sha paytda u San -Pedroga ko'chib o'tdi. 1939 yil 1 sentyabrda Evropada urush boshlanishi kemani texnik xizmat ko'rsatish uchun Argonne (AS-10) suv osti kemasi bilan bir qatorda bog'lab qo'ydi. 1939 yilning qolgan qismida Avocet San -Diyegodagi Dengiz havo stantsiyasida (NAS) joylashgan bo'lib, vaqti -vaqti bilan San -Klemente oroli yaqinidagi San -Pedro va Piramida Kovidagi bazaviy operatsiyalarni qo'llab -quvvatlagan.

Avocet mahalliy darajada San -Pedro va San -Diyegodan 29 -chi bahor portiga borgan
1940 yil, u o'sha paytda Pearl-Harborga jo'nab ketdi. 1940 yil. Avocet 9-aprel kuni Pearl-Harborga etib keldi va yo'lda samolyot qo'riqchisi vazifasini bajarib, to'rt kundan keyin Frantsiyaning Frigate Shoals kompaniyasi uchun konsolidatsiyalanganlar uchun ilg'or bazani yaratish uchun yo'l oldi. PBY XXP flotining VI qismidagi "Maroon" floti tarkibidagi VP-24 uchuvchi qayiqlari, keng ko'lamli flot manevrlarining oxirgi qismi.

"Urush" 8 -aprelda "Maroon" va "Purple" va XXI flot muammosi VI qismi o'rtasida e'lon qilindi, bu urushning barcha jangovar va yordamchi turlarini o'z ichiga olgan urush o'yinlarining 19 -to'rt kunida boshlangan bosqichi. Avocet o'zining ilg'or tayanch saytiga kelganidan keyin. 20-kuni qidiruv missiyalarini amalga oshirish uchun barcha VP-24 havo kemasida bo'lganida, dengiz samolyoti tanlovi "binafsha" kreyser asosidagi skaut samolyotlari tepaga etib kelganida o'zini yolg'iz topdi.

Avocet 1325 yilda sakkizta samolyotdan 10 ta samolyotni ko'rdi va umumiy kvartallarga yo'l oldi. Ikki daqiqadan so'ng suzuvchi samolyotlarning to'rttasi kemaga sancak tomondan hujum qildi, lekin Avocet 3 dyuymli va 30 kalibrli avtomatlari bilan o'q uzdi va ularni haydab yubordi. Keyinchalik, 10 samolyot shimoldan uchishdan oldin port kamonidan hujum qildi. Ko'p o'tmay, dengiz samolyoti tenderda 1355 yilda o'q uzdi, lekin to'rt daqiqadan so'ng to'satdan to'xtab, janubi -sharqqa yo'l oldi. O'sha kuni Frantsiya Frigat Shoalsidan jo'nab ketgan Avocet 24 -kuni Pearl -Harborga etib keldi va XXI flot muammosidagi ishtirokini to'xtatdi. U u erdan AQShning g'arbiy sohiliga qaytib keldi va 1940 yil balansida San -Diego, San -Pedro va Coronadodan ishladi.

Avocet 1941 yilning birinchi ikki oyini San -Diyego hududida o'tkazdi, birinchi navbatda 13-27 yanvar kunlari Destroyerlar bazasida kapital ta'mirdan o'tdi, mahalliy operatsiyalar uchun San -Diegodagi NASga qaytdi. Bu davr mobaynida u 29 va 30 yanvarda Coronado Roadsda VF -2 halokatga uchragan qiruvchi samolyotini va 21 fevralda Skautlik eskadroni (VS) 2 dan Duglas SBD -2 ni qutqardi, ikkinchisini buzilmasdan tikladi va bortga ko'tardi. Ertasi kuni dengiz samolyotining halokatli derrikiga (YSD) o'tish.

3-5 mart kunlari ARD-1 ga kirgandan so'ng, Avocet g'arbiy qirg'oq bo'ylab Meksikaning Salina Kruz shahriga suzib ketdi, u erda 25-mart kuni San-Diyegoga qaytish uchun VP-43 samolyotlari parvozini amalga oshirdi.

Uy portiga qaytayotganda, Avocet baliqchilik kemasi Keyp Xorndan signal yubordi. 1558 yilda kursni o'zgartirib, u 1607 yildayoq baliqchi qayig'ida yotdi va bir necha soniya ichida baxtsiz hodisada kestirib, jarohat olgan qayiqning birinchi yordamchi muhandisiga o'tirdi. Avocet dengizchini San -Diyegoga olib bordi va 1941 yil 2 -aprelda kelganidan keyin uni sog'liqni saqlash xizmatiga topshirdi.

26 -maygacha San -Diyegodan chiqib, Avocet Pearl -Harborga suzib ketdi va u erga 9 -iyun kuni etib keldi. Iyun oyi oxirida u armiya bombardimonchi samolyotlari uchun nishonlarni tortdi va 1 -iyul kuni cheklangan suvlarda sayohat qilib, har bir holatda nom va raqamlarni olgan yapon baliqchilarini tekshirdi. Yozning qolgan qismida Avocet NAS, Pearl -Harbordan tashqarida ishlaydi. U iyul oyi oxirida armiya samolyotlari uchun nishonlarni tortdi va 11 avgustda VS-2 samolyotining qulab tushgan SBD-2-ni qutqardi, u avval Tornton (AVD-11) dengiz samolyoti bilan, keyin esa Curtiss (AV-4) dengiz samolyoti bilan, keyin Hiloda VP-22 ga qaradi. Sentyabr oyining oxirida Pearl-Harbor Navy Yard-da dengiz temir yo'lini o'rnatgandan so'ng, Avocet 2-oktabr kuni Neosho (AO-23) floti moyidan yonilg'i quydi.

Maui shtatining Maalea ko'rfazida o'tkazilgan kalibrlash ishlaridan so'ng, 4-7 noyabr kunlari samolyot qo'riqchisi bo'lish uchun Pearl -Harbordan dengiz samolyoti tanlovi davom etdi; u noyabr oyining ko'p qismini Pearl-Harborda o'tkazdi, shu oyning 29-kunida dengiz flotining hovlisiga cheklangan holda ko'chib o'tdi va Porter (DD-356) yonida to'xtab qoldi. 5-dekabr kuni rejalashtirilgan texnik xizmatni tugatgandan so'ng, kema 1941 yil 6-dekabr kuni ertalab Pearl-Harborga qaytib kelishidan oldin McFarland (AVD-14) yo'lakchasi bilan qisqa vaqt mashq qildi; 1147 yilda u portni NAS dockiga bog'ladi.

1941 yil 7 -dekabr, yakshanba kuni soat taxminan 0745 da, Avocet qo'riqlash qo'riqxonasida Yaponiya samolyotlari Ford orolining janubidagi dengiz samolyotining angarlarini portlatgani va umumiy kvartira ovozi eshitilgani haqida xabar berilgan. Uning ekipaji darhol o'qotar qurollarni o'qqa tutdi va kema ko'p o'tmay o'qqa tutdi. Avocetning uch dyuymli qurolining birinchi o'qi Kaliforniya (BB-44) jangovar kemasiga torpedo zarbasini bergan Nakajima B5N2 samolyotiga ("Keyt") to'g'ridan-to'g'ri zarba berdi. "Kaga" aviakompaniyasining "Nakajima" aviakompaniyasi samolyoti yonib ketdi, osmondan pastga burildi va Kaga tomonidan yo'qolgan beshta samolyotdan biri, dengiz kasalxonasi atrofida aylandi.
ertalab

Dastlab, torpedo samolyotlarini o'qqa tutgan Avocetning o'qotarlari, olovni ertalabki soat boshida, quruqlikdagi kemalarga hujum qiladigan sho'ng'inchilarga o'tkazdilar. Keyin balandlikdagi bombardimonchilarni ko'rib, ular yana olovni o'chirishdi. Ko'p o'tmay, yaqin atrofdagi beshta bomba portladi, lekin hech kim portlamadi.

Haqiqiy halqa yonidagi o'rindiqdan Avocet, hujum paytida ishga tushgan yagona tipli Nevada (BB-36) jangovar kema guvohi bo'ldi. Qo'rquvni ko'rib, yonayotgan kemani Arizona (BB-39) yonbag'iridan tozalashdan so'ng, Kaganing sho'ng'in-bombardimonchi uchuvchilari uni yo'q qilish uchun ajratib qo'yishdi, 21 ta samolyot kompasning hamma joyidan unga hujum qilishdi. Avocet kapitani, kichik leytenant Uilyam C. Jonson, Yaponiya aniqligiga hayron bo'lib, keyinchalik "bundan ham yaxshiroq bajarilgan hujumni" ko'rmaganligini yozgan. Avocetning o'qotarlari jasur jangovar kemaning portdan o'tish joyini yopish uchun to'siqqa qo'shilishdi.

Kema 1000 -da olovni to'xtatgan bo'lsa -da, halokatli kutilmagan hujumdan keyin ko'p ishlar qilish kerak edi. U hujum qilayotgan samolyotlarga qarshi jangda 3 dyuymli va 1,750 .30 kalibrli 144 ta o'qni sarflagan va atigi ikki qurbonga uchragan: jurnallardan chiqqan o'q-dorilar qutisi bir kishining oyog'iga tushib ketgan. uchib ketayotgan parcha boshqasini yarador qildi. Shuningdek, harakat paytida, "Swan" (AVP-7) kichik dengiz samolyotining dengizchisi, o'z kemasiga qaytishga qodir emas, bortga navbatchi sifatida xabar bergan va zudlik bilan .30 kalibrli mashinada stantsiya tayinlangan. qurol

Yonilg'i quyish tanklari yorilib ketgan neftni bu kemalarda olov yoqib yubordi va shamol shimoli -sharqdan asta -sekin Avocetning turar joyiga itarib yubordi. Shunga ko'ra, dengiz samolyotlari tenderi 1045da boshlandi va 1110 da vaqtincha orollar dockiga jo'natildi va yaqinda kelmagan boshqa buyurtmalarni kutdi. 1115 yilda unga Kaliforniya bortida hali ham yonayotgan yong'inlarni o'chirishga yordam berish buyurilgan. Ko'p o'tmay, u Avocet boshqa joyga ketishidan oldin, kemada yong'inlarni o'chirishda Widgeon (ASR-1) suv osti kemasini qutqarish kemasi bilan 20 daqiqa vaqt o'tkazdi.

1215 yilda Kaliforniya bilan bir qatorda, u 25 daqiqadan so'ng dovyurak Nevadaning yoniga etib keldi va jangovar kemaning qirg'og'ida va uning olovini o'chirishda yordam berishni buyurdi. 1240 yilda Nevada portining kamoniga bog'langan Avocet asta -sekin oldinga borib, uni kanalning sho'ng'iniga itarib qo'ydi. 19, o't o'chirish shlanglari bilan uning oldingi bo'shliqlari va signal ko'prigiga olib chiqdi. Avocet ikki soat davomida Nevada shtati olovlari bilan kurashdi va ularni o'chirishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

U bu vazifani qanchalik tez bajargan bo'lsa, uni yana ish kutardi. 1445 yilda u hujum boshida Ford oroli yonida torpeda qilingan va yengil yelkada qolish uchun qattiq kurashayotgan Raleigh (CL-7) yengil kreyserining yordami bilan jo'nab ketdi. Avocet 1547 yilda kreyser yoniga etib bordi va tun bo'yi shu erda qoldi, bug 'va elektr energiyasini etkazib berdi.

O'sha kechada, 2105da, Avocet yana umumiy kvartallarga bordi, chunki butun hududda miltiq qurollari samolyot tepasida o'q uzdi.

Afsuski, bu amerikalik bo'lib, olti qiruvchi samolyot tashuvchisi Enterprise (CV-6) dan uchib ketdi. To'rt kishi otib tashlandi; uch uchuvchi halok bo'ldi.

Avocet 1942 yil may oyining birinchi haftasigacha Pearl -Harbordan chiqib, Gavayi hududida yangi bo'linmalarni va keng ko'lamli patrullarni isloh qilish va jihozlashni qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan ushbu muntazam operatsiyalarni amalga oshirdi, ikkita rivojlangan tayanch evolyutsiyasi bilan, birinchi navbatda Port Allen, Kauayida ( 1942 yil 16-19 yanvar) va keyin Navilivilida (1942 yil 4-8 mart). 1942 yil 11 -mayda 4098 -sonli karvonda Pearl -Harbordan jo'nab ketgan Avocet 20 -may kuni Alamedaga etib keldi va 23 -kuni Hunters Point -ga katta ta'mirlash uchun ko'chib o'tdi.

1942 yil 17 -iyulda Hunters Point -dan jo'nab ketgan Avocet o'sha kuni Alamedaga qaytib keldi va 18 -iyul kuni Sietlga suzib ketdi. 21 -kuni manziliga etib borganida, u u erda atigi uch kun qoldi, u 24 -kuni Kodiakga suzib ketdi va oxir -oqibat u erdan Alyaska ko'rfazidagi, Kodiak orolining sharqiy sohilidagi Ayollar ko'rfaziga bordi.

Avocet oktyabr oyining oxirigacha Alyaska suvlarida ishlagan. U PBY Fleet Air Wing 4 samolyotlarini parvarish qilish va yonilg'i quyish, odamlarni, samolyot qismlari va o'q -dorilarni tashish orqali parvoz qilardi. u ham patrullik vazifasini bajargan va kerak bo'lganda tadqiqot ishlarida qatnashgan. Tez-tez yomon ob-havo bo'lishiga qaramay, Avocet qo'riqlagan "Katalina" eskadronlari Aleutlarda Yaponiya tutgan Attu va Kiska ustidan keng ko'lamli patrullik, portlash va suratga olish ishlarini olib borishdi. Bundan tashqari, Avocet xizmat ko'rsatadigan otryadlar Amerikaning barcha xizmatlari uchun "dumbo" xizmatlarini (Walt Disney studiyasining multfilmi pachyderm nomi bilan atalgan qutqaruv missiyalari) taqdim etishdi va suv osti kemalariga qarshi patrullarni ham uchirishdi. Yapon suv osti kemasi RO-61, Adak yaqinidagi Nazan ko'rfazida, Kasko (AVP-12) torpedasini uchirganida, Avocet dengiz samolyotining shikastlangan tenderiga bordi. 1942 yil 2 sentyabrdan 4 sentyabrgacha u qutqaruv ishlarida yordam berdi, kemani xavfsiz joyga olib chiqishga yordam berdi va o'z ekipajining bir qismini oldi.

1942 yil 1 -noyabrda boshlangan Puget Sound -Navy Yard -da kapital ta'mirdan so'ng, Avocet Alyaska suvlariga qaytib, 1943 -yil 20 -yanvarda Atkaga etib keldi. Ugluigaga suzib, 28 -yanvarda Avocet "Dengiz dengizchilari" partiyasini qo'ndirdi. (Qurilish batalyonining erkaklari) va u erdagi muhandislar, u Nazan ko'rfaziga borishdan oldin, bir oy o'tgach, 28 fevralda keldi.

1943 yilning qolgan qismida Avocet Gollandiya bandargohi, Adak, Amchitka va Adakdan ketma -ket ikkinchi marta, Attu va Gollandiya bandargohidan 16 -iyulgacha harakat qilib, Fleet Air Wing 4 eskadronlarini qo'llab -quvvatlashda davom etdi. Bu vaqt ichida u SS Sem Jeksonni YMS-121 bilan birga Amchitkadan Adakgacha kuzatib bordi, keyin dengiz samolyoti Hulbertga (AVD-6) hamroh bo'lib, savdogarni Adakdan Attuga kuzatib qo'ydi va 21-iyun kuni oxirgi portga etib keldi. . Bu davrda Avocet tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlangan otryadlar suv osti kemalariga qarshi va razvedka patrullarini uchishni davom ettirdilar, shuningdek, kerak bo'lganda "dumbo" xizmatlarini ko'rsatdilar. Avocet 1943 yilning qolgan qismini Gollandiya bandargohi, Adak va Kodiakda o'tkazdi, 1943 yil 23 dekabrda Sietlga ko'chdi.

Avocet 1944 yil 6 -martda Kodiakga qaytib keldi va u erdan Adakga, keyin Attuga parvoz qildi va u erda martning oxirgi kunigacha qoldi. Kichik dengiz samolyoti tenderi 1 -aprelda Adak shahriga ko'chdi, lekin u erda qisqa vaqt qoldi, 5 -aprelda bu joyni Attu uchun tozalab, u ko'p o'tmay keldi.

1944 yil may oyining birinchi yarmida Avocet Attu g'arbidagi qo'riqchi va qutqaruv kema stantsiyasida Doneff eskorti (DE-49) bilan almashdi. Shunday joylashuvdan qaytayotganda, Avocet dushman samolyotlari bilan ikkinchi cho'tkasi bor edi. 1944 yil 19 mayda 1125da u Mitsubishi egizak dvigatelli "Betti" bombardimonchisidan ikki mil narida, tumanli ob-havo sharoitida ko'rgan.

Bir qarashda, "Betti" kemaga o'xshash yo'nalishda ketayotganday tuyuldi, lekin u Avocetni ko'rib, aylana boshlaganday tuyuldi. Avocet "Betti" ga 3 dyuymli va 20 millimetrli qurol bilan o'q uzdi, ammo zarba bermadi. "Betti", o'z navbatida, dumi 20 millimetrli qurol bilan kemani o'rab oldi. Uchrashuvda hech bir tomon zarar ko'rmadi va Avocet yana Attuga safarini davom ettirdi.

May oyining qolgan qismida Attu, Massacre ko'rfazi va Kuluk ko'rfazidan navbatma -navbat harakat qilib, Avocet Massacre ko'rfazidan 30 mayda Kiska jo'nab ketdi va u erga 1 iyun kuni Amchitkaga yo'lovchilarni tashish uchun keldi. Kichik dengiz samolyotlari tenderi yozning qolgan qismida Aleutlardan chiqib, Adak, Attu, Massacre ko'rfazi, Shemya oroli va Golland portidagi suvlarda tez -tez bo'lib turdi, 1944 yil 29 -iyulda Attuni Puget Sound va kapital ta'mirlash uchun tozalashdan oldin.

Avocet Tinch okeanining shimoliy teatrida 11-jahon urushining qolgan qismida qoldi, avgust oyining o'rtalarida Yaponiya bilan urush tugagunga qadar Adak, Attu va Golland portida ishladi. Urush oxirida bu davrni ta'kidlab, Avocet Kamchatka yarim oroliga tez etkazib beriladigan Garri L. Korl (APD-108) bilan birga, 1945 yil 6 sentyabrda etib kelgan va oxir-oqibat Adakga qaytgunga qadar ob-havo stantsiyasini o'rnatgan.

Kichik dengiz samolyotlari "Unimak" (AVP-31) tanlovidan qutulish uchun Avocet 1945 yil 7 oktyabrda Adakni Sietlga olib keldi va 16-kuni keldi, 13-dengiz okrugining komendantiga yo'q qilish to'g'risida xabar berdi. 1945 yil 20 -noyabrda tekshirilganda, kema "iqtisodiy ta'mirlanmagan" deb topildi. U 1945 yil 10 dekabrda ishdan bo'shatildi va uning ismi 1946 yil 3 yanvarda Dengiz floti ro'yxatidan o'chirildi. 1946 yil 12 dekabrda Nyu -Yorkdagi Bruklindagi qurilish va quvvat mashinalari kompaniyasiga sotildi va u ro'yxatda qoldi. 1950 yilgacha Amerika yuk tashish rekordi byurosida, shundan keyin uning ismi yo'qolgan. Keyinchalik u ishdan bo'shatildi.

Avocet (AVP-4) 1941 yil 7-dekabrda Pearl-Harborda flotni himoya qilishda qatnashgani uchun 11-jahon urushining bitta jangchi yulduziga sazovor bo'ldi.


WSUN AM & FM - tarix

WSUN-AM 590 Sankt-Peterburg va amp WSUN-FM 97.1 Dam olish & ndash 1927 yil iyulda Sankt -Peterburg savdo palatasi Clearwater savdo palatasiga tegishli Clearwater & rsquos WFHH kompaniyasining yarmini sotib olishni shahar komissiyasi tomonidan ma'qulladi. Sent -Pitning yarmi WSUN (Vsalom Stay Up N.ort). Keyingi oy, 1927 yil avgustda, WFHH o'z qo'ng'iroqlarini WFLA ga o'zgartirdi.

Shartnoma WSUN -ga haftasiga uch kecha, yakshanba va WFLA -ga haftasiga to'rt kecha va yakshanba kunlari, har bir stantsiyaning o'z ofislari va studiyalariga ega bo'lishini nazarda tutgan. Yangi Sent -Pit stantsiyasi va rsquos ochilish translyatsiyasi Shrine klubidan 1927 yil oktyabr oyida 590 kHz chastotasida efirga uzatildi. Noyabr oyida 750 vatt quvvatga ega WSUN munitsipal iskala (ba'zan million dollarlik iskala) ikkinchi qavatidagi 40 ming dollarlik yangi studiyalarining premyerasi bo'lib o'tdi.

1928 yil boshida WFLA/WSUN 580 kHz ga, keyin esa yil oxirigacha 900 kHz ga o'tdi. 1929 yil noyabr oyida Florida shtatining ko'pgina stansiyalarini qayta taqsimlashda stansiyalar 620 kHz ga o'tdi. WSUN 1930 yil may oyida Clearwater markazidan Tampa ko'rfazidagi Bayvyuga ko'chib o'tdi, u 5-kilovattli yangi uzatgichli, ikki elementli yo'nalishli antenna tizimini o'z ichiga oladi. Bu Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridagi tijorat radioeshittirish stantsiyasida ishlatiladigan birinchi yo'nalishli antenna tizimi bo'ldi.

Ikki tomonlama WFLA-WSUN stantsiyasining ishlashi 1941 yilda bo'linib, WFLA 940 kHz (keyinroq 970 kHz gacha) va WSUN 620 kHzda qoldi. Radio va rsquos oltin asrlarida WSUN Louella Parsons, Walter Winchell va Drew Pearson kabi mashhur Blue/ABC radiosi shaxslariga mezbonlik qilgan. Shuningdek, & ldquo kabi shoular ham bor ediDon McNeil va rsquos nonushta klubi, & rdquo & ldquoDoktor I.Q., & rdquo & ldquoOzzi va Xarrietning sarguzashtlari, & rdquo & ldquoYashil shoxli, & rdquo & ldquoTed Mack va rsquos original Havaskorlar soati, & rdquo & ldquoYolg'iz Ranger, & rdquo va & ldquoLun & lsquon Abner. & rdquo 1950 -yillarning o'rtalariga kelib, radio va rsquos tomoshabinlari televideniyaning ommabopligi tufayli sezilarli darajada kamayib ketdi va ABC kunduzgi dramalar va seriallarni, tungi komediya, dramatik, estrada va viktorinalarni bekor qila boshladi. Bo'sh joyni to'ldirish uchun WSUN o'z e'tiborini Sankt -Peterburg va rsquos keksa fuqarolarining musiqiy ko'rsatuvlari va o'z diktorlari xodimlari o'tkazadigan boshqa mahalliy dasturlarga qaratdi.

WSUN Bayvudda Gandi ko'prigiga olib boriladigan poligonning oxiriga yaqin yangi uzatgich o'rnatishga o'tguncha transmitter operatsiyalarini davom ettirdi. Rasmiy bag'ishlanish 1952 yil 22 -yanvarda ABC Radio & rsquos Don Mc Neill tomonidan bo'lib, u & ldquo -ni yaratgan.Nonushta klubi& rdquo o'sha kuni Sankt -Peterburgdan ertalabki shou. Ko'p yillar davomida WSUN -ning asl uzatgichi Vashingtondagi Smitson institutida doimiy ko'rgazma sifatida saqlandi.

Sankt -Peterburg shahri WSUNni WSUN, Inc. (Hy Levinson, prezident) ga 1966 yil boshida sotdi. 1927 yilda birinchi marta efirga chiqqanidan beri bekat va rsquos uyi bo'lgan Municipal Pier & rsquos kazino binosi keyingi yili buzib tashlandi. bir xil ko'rinishda yangi inshoot qurilishi uchun yo'l ochish. O'sha paytda ofislar va studiyalar shahar markazidagi yangi shtab -kvartiraga ko'chib o'tishdi.

1973 yilda WSUN Plow Broadcasting (H. Ueyn Xadson, prezident) ga tegishli stantsiyalar ro'yxatiga qo'shildi. Ertasi yili bir kuni ertalab, tinglovchilar Lourens Uelk o'rniga radiodan Jonni Kesh chiqayotganini eshitib, uyg'onishdi. Nima bo'lgan bo'lsa, Plou stantsiyani mamlakatga aylantirgan (Quyosh mamlakati), 5 kilovattli AM tez-tez o'rnatilgan WQYK-FM stereo-100 kilovattli boshini bir-biriga qo'yishga qaror qildi.K-99).

Taft WSUN -ni sotib oldi. 1985 yilda CBS stantsiyani sotib olgach, studiyalar shimoliy 4 -ko'chadagi Koger markaziga ko'chirildi. 1990 yilda u Cox Radio -ga sotildi va mamlakatdan yangiliklar/suhbatlarga o'tdi, birinchi navbatda ertalab barcha yangiliklar, keyin esa kechasi NBC telekanali. 1992 yilda yangiliklar/suhbatlar to'xtatildi, bir kunlik Rojdestvo musiqasi bilan o'sish to'xtab qoldi, keyin & quot;AM 620 WSUN mamlakat klassikasi, & quot; 1995 yilgacha davom etgan va debyuti Yangiliklar/Gap 620 Nil Rojers va boshqalar bilan WSUN (& ldquo90 va rsquo uchun qiziqarli suhbat& rdquo). Koks bu formatni tashlab, 1998 yilda ABC & rsquos & ldquoStardust & rdquo (kattalar standartlari) sun'iy yo'ldosh musiqasi xizmatiga o'tdi.

1998 yil oxirida WSUN qo'ng'iroq xati AM-620-dan Plant City & rsquos AM-910-ga ko'chirildi, u erda sun'iy yo'ldosh bilan ta'minlangan 50 va rsquos musiqa formatini dasturlashtirdi. Sobiq AM-620 terish nuqtasi Concord Media Group & rsquos WSAA yangiliklariga aylandi. Salem Broadcasting 2001 yilda AM 910 ni sotib oldi, qo'ng'iroqlarni WTWD ga o'zgartirdi va diniy formatni efirga uzatishni boshladi.

1999 yil yanvarigacha WSUN-FM Sankt-Peterburg studiyalaridan 97,1 mGts chastotada efirga uzatilgan. Stantsiya ilgari Pasko okrugidagi Holiday & rsquos WLVU-FM edi. O'tgan yilning sentyabridan beri LMA ostida ishlaydigan Cox Radio o'z aktivlarini WSUN-AM va 17 million dollar evaziga sotib oldi.

FM pastki signalning haqiqati va bu bozordagi ikkita eski stantsiyalardan biri ekanligi bilan kurashdi. Mish-mishlarga ko'ra, stantsiya 80 va rsquos formatiga o'tadi, lekin 2000 yil 3-noyabr 17:00 da Tampa ko'rfazi birinchi ta'mga ega bo'ldi. 97X-Yangi rok alternativasi. Uning birinchi qo'shig'i Fuel tomonidan yozilgan & ldquoHemhorrage & rdquo edi. Keyinchalik stansiya 2013 yil 18 yanvarda radio tarixining bir qismini yaratdi, bu musiqani muxlislar tomonidan bepul smartfon ilovasi orqali tanlangan birinchi mahalliy stansiya bo'ldi.

2019 yil o'rtalarida Apollon Global Management boshchiligidagi guruh Cox & rsquos radio portfelini sotib olganini e'lon qildi. WSUN FM Tampa -Bay bozorida egalik qilish huquqi yo'qolganligi sababli ajratish ishonchiga topshirildi.


WSUN-AM va rsquosning mamlakatdan oldingi yillardagi boshqa ismlari Lui J. Link (bosh muhandis-1927), Ede Grin (1932-33), Major Jorj D. Robinson (1935 GM-1950), Norman E. Braun (GM-1944), Vera M. Yangi (savdo menejeri-1944), Pol Hayes (birinchi tungi diktor), Jeff Mosier (sport direktori-1953), Garri Smit (1953), Burl Makkarti (1953), Erni Li (1954), Charlz Kelli (GM-1955), Dayton Saltsman (PD-1955), Jon Bunga (savdo menejeri-1955), Barbara Young (aktsiyalar-1955 ayollar va rsquo direktori-1956)), Bill Bowers (yangiliklar direktori-1955), Bob Stanton (1956), Fred Shon (GM-1957), J.L. Xitkok (savdo menejeri-1957), Charlz D. Bishop (PD-1957), Charlz Meyson (PD/aktsiyalar-1957), Jek Uellon (savdo menejeri-1958), Garri Uilyams (PD-1958), Jerri Beyker (aktsiyalar-1958), Uilyam J. Kodlash (bosh muhandis-1958), Robert Von (PD-1960), Karl Fuchs (aktsiyalar-1961), Irvin Braun (yangiliklar direktori-1961), Earl Ulde (GM), Al Korbet (bir kechada & quot; Midnight Sun & quot; 1965-68), Ron Teylor (PD/sotish-1966), Jo Roberts (tunlar-1966 yil ertalab-kech 60 va musiqiy direktor-1972), Jon Meder (kech 60 va rsquo), Jorj Lori (kechalar-60-yillarning oxiri/70-yillarning boshlari), Tom Dren (dam olish kunlari-1970), Toni Qo'ng'iroq (PD-1970), Lloyd Osborn (bosh muhandis-1970), Stokes Gresham, kichik (GM/savdo menejeri-1971), Xyu Braun (yangiliklar direktori-1971 GM-1972), Toni Pavone (yangiliklar direktori-1971), Bob Vulf (savdo menejeri-1972), Rey Madren (PD-1972), Terri Keysi (yangiliklar direktori-1972), Jon Gall (yangiliklar direktori-1973), Deyv Pegram, Darrel Martin, Garold Xetfild, Jon Rayt (yangiliklar) va Moris Xays.

WSUN & rsquos & ldquo dan ba'zi ismlarQuyosh mamlakati& rdquo yillar kiradi Don Boyles (GM-1974), Tommi Charlz (PD-1974), Jey Roberts (kechalar-1976), Don Hibbitts (savdo menejeri-1979), Gari Kines (PD-1979), Rojer Kristi (yangiliklar direktori-1979), Bob Shilds (bosh muhandis-1979), Al Ford (trafik muxbiri-1980 va rsquos), Kevin Merfi (PD/musiqa direktori/peshindan keyin-80 va rsquos), Les Xovard (kunlar o'rtasi-80 va rsquo), Charli chempioni (ertalab-o'rtalar 80 va rsquo), Mark Stivens (kechaning o'rtalari 80 va rsquo), Jorj Sosson (GM-1986), Stiv Burgess (savdo menejeri-1986), Ronald J. Ebben (yangiliklar direktori-1986) va Mark Uilyams (bosh muhandis-1986).

WSUN-FM tarixidan nomlar kiradi Keyt Lawless (VP va GM), Jodi Reyn (savdo bo'yicha bosh menejer), Charli Mills (PD & amp tushdan keyin haydovchi 1999), Skott Robbins (1999), Maykl Sharkey (PD-2001), Pat Largo, Jessi Kageva Fisher va o'g'il (& ldquoErtalab X& rdquo xostlari).


Chuqur kelib chiqishi

Muammolar tarixi butun Irlandiya tarixi bilan chambarchas bog'liq va shuning uchun inglizlarning orolda birinchi bosqini, 12-asr oxiridagi Angliya-Norman bosqini natijasida paydo bo'lgan. avlodlari "eski inglizlar" deb nomlangan ko'chmanchilar. Shundan so'ng, taxminan sakkiz asr davomida Angliya, keyin Buyuk Britaniya Irlandiya ishlarida hukmronlik qilardi. Britaniyalik uy -joy mulkdorlarini mustamlakaga aylantirish, irlandiyalik er egalarini ko'p joyidan ko'chirdi. Bu "plantatsiyalar" ning eng muvaffaqiyatlilari 17 -asr boshlarida Irlandiyaning to'rtta an'anaviy provintsiyasining eng shimolidagi Ulsterda, ilgari qo'zg'olon markazi bo'lib o'tdi, bu erda ekuvchilar ingliz va shotland ijarachilari, shuningdek ingliz uy egalari edi. Ulster plantatsiyasi tufayli, Irlandiya tarixi ochilganidek - orolning katolik ko'pchiligining protestantlar ustunligi ostida ozod qilinishi uchun kurash, irland millatchilari uy boshqaruvi, keyin orol Buyuk bilan rasmiy birlashgandan so'ng mustaqillik. Buyuk Britaniya 1801 yil - Ulster protestant ko'chmanchilar mahalliy irlandlardan ko'p bo'lgan mintaqa sifatida rivojlandi. Avvalgi ingliz ko'chmanchilaridan farqli o'laroq, 17-asr ingliz va Shotlandiya ko'chmanchilarining ko'pchiligi va ularning avlodlari irlandlar bilan assimilyatsiya qilinmagan. Buning o'rniga, ular inglizlarning o'ziga xosligini qattiq ushlab turishdi va Britaniya tojiga sodiq qolishdi.


Isroil-Falastin mojarosining dolzarb muammolari

Yosir Arofatning o'limi - Yosir Arofatning o'limidan so'ng, Falastin tarixida va Isroil -Falastin munosabatlarida yangi davr boshlandi. Mahmud Abbos (Abu Mazen) erkin va demokratik saylovlarda qulay ko'pchilik ovoz bilan Falastin milliy ma'muriyatining prezidenti (& quot; Rais & quot) etib saylandi. Abbos terrorga barham berishga va Quddusdagi Falastin poytaxti G'arbiy Sohil va G'azodan Isroilni olib chiqib, tinchlik muzokaralari olib borishga va'da berdi.

Hamasning saylovdagi g'alabasi - 2006 yil yanvar oyida bo'lib o'tgan saylovlarda Hamas harakati Falastin Qonunchilik Kengashida ko'p o'rinlarni qo'lga kiritdi va hukumat tuzdi. Bu oxir -oqibat 2007 yil iyunigacha Fatxni o'z ichiga olgan birlashgan hukumatga aylantirildi. Hamas Isroilning mavjud bo'lish huquqini yoki Isroil bilan sulh tuzishni rad etadi.

Isroilni tan olish - ko'pchilik falastinliklar 2006 yil yanvar oyida bo'lib o'tgan saylovlarda Fateh ustidan g'alaba qozongan Xamas radikal harakati Isroilni tan olishni va tinchlik muzokaralarini olib borishni xohlaydilar. Hamas rasmiylarining aytishicha, ular "Isroil borligini tan olishadi", lekin ular hech qachon Isroilning yahudiy davlati sifatida bo'lish huquqini tan olmasliklarini va Isroil bilan hech qachon tinchlik o'rnatmasliklarini aytishadi. Evropa va Amerika rahbarlari Hamas bilan muzokara qilmaslikka va Hamas Isroilni qurolsizlantirish va tan olishga rozi bo'lmaguncha, falastinliklarga yordam bermaslikka va'da berishdi. Hamas vakillari aralash signallarni yuborishdi, lekin Isroilni hech qachon tan olmaslikka va butun Falastinga bo'lgan da'vosidan hech qachon voz kechmaslikka va'da berishdi, garchi ko'pchilik falastinliklar tinchlik yo'lidan borishni xohlashsa kerak.

Falastin birligi va kvarteti boykot - To'rtlik davlatlari Isroilni tan olish va zo'ravonliklarga chek qo'yishga rozi bo'lmaguncha, Hamas boshchiligidagi hukumatni rasman boykot qildilar. Boykot chetlab o'tildi, bu to'g'ridan -to'g'ri falastinlik ishchilarga ish haqi uchun mablag 'ajratishga imkon berdi. 2007 yil mart oyida Hamas va Fateh Makkada birdamlik shartnomasini tuzdilar, bu platformasi noaniq bo'lgan hukumat tuzishga imkon berdi. Palestinians called on Western governments to recognize the new government and end the boycott. Quartet members will talk to non-Hamas members of the new government. Israel insisted it would maintain relations only with Mr. Abbas, who is President and not part of the government.

Collapse of the Palestinian authority - In June of 2007, following growing anarchy in Gaza, Hamas militants attacked Fatah/Palestinian authority positions in Gaza, including military posts, government buildings, and hospitals, and drove the Fatah out of the Gaza strip. Palestinian PM Mahmoud Abbas dissolved the unity government and announced he would form a different government based in the West Bank. In the West Bank, Fatah militants arrested Hamas officials and Hamas fighters. At present (June 16) there are two separate governments in the Web Bank and Gaza. This makes the future of any peace process very uncertain.

Truce and violence - Mahmoud Abbas tried to convince Palestinian militant groups to declare a truce and refrain from attacking Israel, while Israel declared that it would refrain from assassinations and hunting down wanted terrorists except in emergencies. The truce was kept imperfectly (June 2007) and flickered on and off. Israel continued to arrest wanted Palestinians and people on their way to terror attacks in the West Bank, while Palestinians continued to fire Qassam rockets (see below) from Gaza. Israeli reprisals in Gaza killed civilians as well as armed terrorists.

Security - Abbas has declared again and again that he will not use force against armed groups. At the same time, he has insisted that "the law will be enforced" and that the PNA would not permit chaos and independent actions by armed groups. The year 2005 however, was plagued by attacks of Fatah and Hamas factions against Palestinian institutions, as well as a suicide attack apparently instigated by the Syrian branch of Islamic Jihad.

Provisional State versus Final Status - The quartet roadmap calls for considering a Palestinian state within provisional borders as an option, which is favored by Israelis and the United States, while Abbas is insisting on final status status negotiations and claims he does not want a state with provisional borders.

Qassam Rockets - Beginning in 2001, Palestinian groups in the Gaza strip have been firing Qassam rockets, initially at Israeli settlements in the Gaza strip and later at civilian targets inside Israel. The firing escalated after the Hamas took power. The rockets have claimed about a dozen lives and done extensive property damage. The town of Sderot has been subject to a daily barrage of Qassam rockets in 2007.

Kidnapped Soldier - In June of 2006, groups affiliated with the Hamas, including those who later kidnapped BBC reporter Alan Johnston, crossed the border into Israel and kidnapped Corporal Gilad Shalit. He is being held for ransom against freeing of an unspecified large number of Palestinian prisoners. Israel insists that serious negotiations about final status issues cannot be restarted until Shalit is returned. Palestinian negotiators were apparently offered release of over 1,000 prisoners in return for Shalit, but turned the offer down.

Israeli Security Handover - Israel is supposed to hand over security responsibilities in West Bank cities, gradually lifting the siege and returning conditions to what they were before the start of the violence in 2000.

The "security barrier" (Apartheid Wall) - A "security barrier" being built inside the West Bank cuts off Palestinians from their lands and from other towns, and destroys olive groves and other property according to Palestinians. The route of the fence has been changed several times under international pressure. Today (October 2005) it includes about 7% of West Bank territory on the Israeli side of the barrier. An International Court of Justice (ICJ) advisory ruling declares the barrier to be in violation of international law . Since the barrier was built, Israeli casualties decreased dramatically, and the IDF claims that it is vital to preventing terror attacks. An Israeli Supreme Court ruling declared that the fence is not illegal in principle, but that the route must be changed to optimize the balance between security and humanitarian concerns. More about the Security Barrier ("Apartheid Wall")

Prisoners - Israel holds thousands of Palestinian prisoners, of whom about 500 were released in February of 2005, and an additional group of over 450 are to be released soon. Palestinians want release of all prisoners, especially women and minors. Israel is unwilling to release prisoners who have served less than two-thirds of their sentence and those who were directly involved in attacks ("blood on their hands").

Disengagement - The Israeli Government decided to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and from 4 settlements in the West Bank, evacuating about 8,000 settlers. After the death of Yasser Arafat, it partially coordinated the move with the Palestinians. Disengagement was completed without major incidents by September of 2005, but was followed by considerable chaos within Gaza. (Click for Israel Disengagement Map) (Click for more about disengagement ).

Safe Passage and open borders - Palestinians living in Gaza have very restricted access to the outside world. A safe passage for Gazans to the West Bank was supposed to have been implemented under the Oslo accords but never came into being. Israel favors a rail link, while Palestinians want a motor road. Most border crossings between Gaza and Israel have been closed since disengagement. The Rafah border crossing with Egypt was supposed to be closed at one point, but Palestinians overwhelmed the guards and Hamas exploded a portion of the barrier, allowing Palestinians to cross freely for a brief time before the crossing was closed again. Israel wanted the crossing to remain closed for several months, and wanted to open a crossing at Kerem Shalom in Israeli territory, which unlike Rafah, would be partly under Israeli control. In the fall of 2005, however, the Rafah Crossing was opened under European Union, Egyptian and Palestinian supervision, with Israeli remote monitoring via TV cameras. Israel promised to implement safe passage but did not do so. Even so, the crossing is open only intermittently. In the West Bank, numerous checkpoints restrict the movement of Palestinians.

Israeli Outposts - Under the roadmap, Israel had undertaken to evacuate illegal "outposts" set up by settlers with government knowledge, but without formal approval, after March 2001. There are estimated to be about 28 such outposts by the government. Peace Now estimates there are 53 such outposts. In all, there are over 100 outposts, including those erected before the cutoff date. The Sasson report released March 9, 2005 catalogued extensive misuse of government funds for building settlements, though most of the information had been known beforehand. Israeli PM Ariel Sharon promised once again to evacuate the outposts. No substantial progress was made, however, as late as June 2007.


PhD Candidate - Department of Sociology – Columbia University

These findings may be unsurprising in light of shocking video footage of anti-Asian violence that has recently gone viral. Viewers of these videos witnessed perpetrators shoving elderly men and women to the ground, assaulting Asian American men and women in the face, and stabbing an Asian American man in the back with an 8-inch knife. Asian-owned businesses like New York’s Xi’an Famous Foods, already under financial stress because of the pandemic, are also struggling to keep their employees safe. The spate of unprovoked attacks elicited a rallying cry that something must be done. For Asian Americans, however, this cry is a year overdue.

Click the graphic to view a full-size version in a new tab.

Since March of last year, there have been over 3,000 self-reported incidents of anti-Asian violence from 47 states and the District of Columbia, ranging from stabbings and beatings, to verbal harassment and bullying, to being spit on and shunned. While being spit on is offensive, in the time of coronavirus, it is also potentially lethal.

Democratic lawmakers, led by Rep. Grace Meng, D-N.Y. and Sen. Mazie Hirono, D-Hawaii, said they would introduce new anti-hate crime legislation to address a rise in hate incidents directed at Asian Americans. The bill would create a new position at the Department of Justice to facilitate the review of hate crimes and provide oversight of hate crimes related to COVID-19.

The Trope of Black-Asian Conflict

These senseless acts of anti-Asian violence have finally garnered the national attention they deserve, but they have also invoked anti-Black sentiment and reignited the trope of Black-Asian conflict. Because some of the video-taped perpetrators appear to have been Black, some observers immediately reduced anti-Asian violence to Black-Asian conflict. This is not the first time that the trope has been weaponized. Black-Asian conflict—and Black-Korean conflict more specifically—became the popular frame of the LA riots in 1992.

The trope failed to capture the reality of Black-Korean relations three decades ago, and it fails to capture the reality of anti-Asian bias today. A recent study finds that in fact, Christian nationalism is the strongest predictor of xenophobic views of COVID-19, and the effect of Christian nationalism is greater among white respondents, compared to Black respondents. Moreover, Black Americans have also experienced high levels of racial discrimination since the pandemic began. Hence, not only does the frame of two minoritized groups in conflict ignore the role of white national populism, but it also absolves the history and systems of inequality that positioned them there.


Israel-Palestine conflict caused by history, faith and modern politics

The Israel-Palestine conflict has escalated once again – and there was one moment in particular that sparked the latest horrifying unrest.

Shocking footage has emerged of the destruction in Gaza City as rocket barrages and air strikes between Israel and Palestine continue.

Shocking footage has emerged of the destruction in Gaza City as rocket barrages and air strikes between Israel and Palestine continue.

There are fears the attack could spark a civil war. Picture: Fatima Shbair/Getty Images Source:Getty Images

Finding it impossible to understand what’s happening in Israel? Do you think both sides have got rocks in their head? You could be right.

But it’s also about modern politics.

Put the three together, and you get a crisis.

Deep-set tensions in the Middle East are always ready to explode. But it usually takes a series of sparks for ignition.

This time around, it was the forced eviction of Palestinian families from their homes to allow Jewish settlers into East Jerusalem. Palestinian crops were set alight. The historic Damascus Gate plaza was closed during the Islamic religious festival of Ramadan.

Then thousands of Jewish ultranationalists marched to celebrate the annexation of East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Gaza Strip after the 1967 Six-Day War.

Rockets launched towards Israel from the northern Gaza Strip and response from the Israeli missile defence system known as the Iron Dome leave streaks through the sky on May 13, 2021 in Gaza City, Gaza. Picture: Fatima Shbair/Getty Images Source:Getty Images

Palestinian families take shelter in a UN school in Gaza City on May 13, 2021, after fleeing from their homes in the town of Beit Lahia. Picture: Mahmud Hams/AFP Source:AFP

Amid it all, Palestinian protesters had been clashing with hard-line Israelis and police almost daily.

But one incident, in particular, detonated the seething unrest.

It happened at the very epicentre of Middle Eastern conflict.

It’s one of the holiest of holy sites.

The home of the 𠇏oundation stone of the Earth”.

On May 7, Israeli police used rubber bullets and stun grenades against rock-throwing protesters among a crowd of worshippers gathered at Jerusalem’s Al-Aqsa mosque. Hundreds were hurt.

Things then escalated. Fast.

Palestine Information Network *AQSA UPDATE*

After Taraweeh last night and into the wee hours of this morning, Masjid al-Aqsa was transformed into exactly the same theatre for Israeli attacks as yesterday morning. pic.twitter.com/yv455UeQvI

&mdash Masjid al Aqsa (@firstqiblah) May 11, 2021

What goes around comes around. And around. And around.

At least when it comes to conflict in the Middle East.

The origins of this fight are lost in the depths of time, myth, scripture and history.

Perhaps the start can be traced back to the Genesis story of the prophet Abraham leaving the Akkadian city of Ur to find a new home in what may have then been called Canaan.

His family soon splintered, with Jacob fleeing drought to resettle in Egypt. It is written that Jacob’s 12 sons became the 12 tribes of Israel. And these returned to Canaan, under the guidance of the prophet Moses, only to find it populated by the other offspring of Abraham.

A series of warlords carved out the first kingdom of Israel. Though whether the First Temple – and its builder King Solomon – was real or a compilation of myths like King Arthur and Camelot remains a matter of debate.

What is historically verifiable is the Assyrian King Sargon II captured the territory associated with Israel in 722BC and resettled much of the population in Persia. Likewise, he moved other conquered peoples to the Holy Land. Biblical texts say the Israelites later returned to seize back control.

Israeli firefighters battle a field fire after a rocket launched from Gaza Strip struck on May 13, 2021 in Ramla, Israel. Picture: Amir Levy/Getty Images Source:Getty Images

A few centuries later, it happened again.

King Nebuchadnezzar II defeated Israel and Egypt in 597BC. He levelled the First Temple and had many of the Israelites deported to Babylon. Biblical accounts say this exile lasted 70 years, after which the Jewish people returned to take back control of their holy land.

History repeated yet again in AD70.

The Romans destroyed the Second Temple and much of Jerusalem after a failed rebellion. Without the religious heart of their culture, the Jewish people embarked almost 2000 years of diaspora – or exile – across Europe.

Israel was re-established after World War II. And its people were once again faced with those who had moved in while they were gone.

Israel insists Jerusalem is once again the capital of its Jewish state.

Palestine wants to retain the ancient Eastern Quarter of the city to be the capital of its desired Islamic government.

Why is this such a source of contention?

At Jerusalem’s heart is a sacred site with 3000 years of belief, history and myth embedded within it. And both claim it as their own.

Some men sit on the rubble of a residential building in Gaza City, Gaza Strip, that was destroyed by an Israeli air strike, on May 13, 2021 in Gaza City, Gaza. Picture: Fatima Shbair/Getty Images. Source:Getty Images

Like almost all of the Holy Land, Jerusalem has a long and storeyed past.

It surrounds what Christians and Jews call the Temple Mount.

At its core is a prehistoric natural feature: The Noble Rock.

Some Jews believe it to be the spot where the world was created from. Others say it was the foundation of the Holy of Holies that held the sacred Ark of the Covenant. Beneath it is a cavern known as the Well of Souls.

The Noble Rock is also significant to Islam. It’s believed to be the place where the prophet Muhammad began his spiritual ‘Night Journey’. It’s believed to be where an angel will announce the arrival of Resurrection Day.

The Noble Rock is the heart of the 14 hectare Al-Haram al-Sharif (Noble Sanctuary) precinct. The spectacular, golden Islamic Dome of the Rock was built as a shrine to protect it in 685AD.

Muslims pray in front of the Dome of the Rock during the holy month of Ramadan in Jerusalem's Old City on April 16, 2021. Picture: Muammar Awad/Xinhua via Getty Source:Getty Images

The nearby Al-Aqsa Mosque was built in 637AD, shortly after the prophet’s death, as a place of worship. Crusaders mistakenly believed it to be King Solomon’s stables when captured in 1099AD. It was soon gifted to a group of warrior monks who became known as the Templars.

Once again in Muslim hands, Al-Aqsa, along with the Dome of the Rock, is considered to be the third most holy Islamic place on Earth.

The fate of the Noble Sanctuary hung in the balance after Israel occupied East Jerusalem after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. But international pressure saw jurisdiction ‘granted’ to an Islamic organisation administered by neighbouring Jordan.

Israel, however, commands its surrounds.

And that means it controls access to the holy site.

Jews and Christians are not permitted to pray on the Temple Mount as it is Islamic holy ground. They are, however, permitted to visit.

Extremist ultra-Orthodox groups continue to lobby for control of the Temple Mount. They want to demolish all Islamic structures there and build another Jewish temple.

Meanwhile, they revere the only remaining portion of the Second Temple – the Western Wall.

That makes the Noble Sanctuary the political and religious flashpoint it is today.

A visit to Al-Aqsa by Israeli politician Ariel Sharon – surrounded by police – in 2000 sparked violent protests and a brutal Israeli crackdown. Palestinians considered a desecration of holy ground. It was also perceived as a threat to seize control.

This led to a general Palestinian uprising, the Second Intifada.

Opposition leader Ariel Sharon as he leaves the Temple Mount in 2000. Picture: AP Photo/Eyal Warshavsky Source:AP

Violent clashes between the factions have continued sporadically in and around the compound ever since.

In 2017, three Arab Israelis killed two Israeli police before fleeing into the Al-Aqsa mosque. Israeli forces followed, shooting them dead.

Now groups of religious-nationalist Jews – guarded by heavy detachments of police – have begun regularly visiting the Noble Sanctuary to pray in defiance of longstanding agreements.

Palestinians see this as both provocative and sacrilegious.

Israeli officials say they have no intention of changing the status quo. But heavily armed police escort the offending ultra-Orthodox worshippers. This is why Palestinians fear this is part of a scheme to seize control of the Noble Sanctuary.

Violent clashes often result.

And these can quickly reverberate across the entire region.

Palestinian militant group Hamas, the unofficial government of Gaza, is calling for a general uprising. It wants another “intifada” – or people’s war.

Following the May 7 clash, militants began a remarkably low-tech assault against Israel’s advanced high-tech defences. Simple balloons carry incendiary devices on the winds. Home-made rockets are being fired among a variety of smuggled projectiles. Amid the flames are protests and sporadic shootings.

Satellite imagery shows smoke from a burning storage tank in Ashkelon Southern Israel on May 12, 2021. Picture: Maxar Technologies/AFP Source:AFP

A man brings in a Palestinian child injured in the aftermath of an Israeli air strike to a hospital in Rafah in the southern Gaza Strip on May 13, 2021. Picture: Said Khatib/AFP Source:AFP

Israel has responded with laser-guided artillery and bombs, tanks, troops and attack helicopters.

Behind the religion-inflamed emotions is a crisis over who can live where, who owns what, and whose laws apply where.

The United Nations partitioned the Holy Land into Israeli and Palestinian regions in 1948. Some 750,000 Arabs were evicted from their homes and farms. They were given nowhere to go. Their descendants still live in refugee camps in Jordan, Syria and Lebanon.

Much of Palestine’s UN-mandated territory was lost to an Israeli invasion in 1967. A failed attempt by Egypt and Syria to seize this back in 1973 became known as the Yom Kippur War.

All that remains of Palestine are the West Bank and Gaza. And controversial Israeli settlements have been eating away at these spaces for decades.

Once again, Israel is debating the prospect of annexing more Palestinian territory.

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has pledged to unilaterally apply Israeli law to portions of the West Bank – whether the Palestinians want it or not. Facing trial on charges of corruption, fraud and bribery, Netanyahu is desperate to maintain a grip on power.

One way to do that is to please the powerful ultra-Orthodox factions. And that means land seizures. And greater control over the Noble Sanctuary.


Marx's Conflict Theory

Conflict theory originated in the work of Karl Marx, who focused on the causes and consequences of class conflict between the bourgeoisie (the owners of the means of production and the capitalists) and the proletariat (the working class and the poor). Focusing on the economic, social, and political implications of the rise of capitalism in Europe, Marx theorized that this system, premised on the existence of a powerful minority class (the bourgeoisie) and an oppressed majority class (the proletariat), created class conflict because the interests of the two were at odds, and resources were unjustly distributed among them.

Within this system an unequal social order was maintained through ideological coercion which created consensus--and acceptance of the values, expectations, and conditions as determined by the bourgeoisie. Marx theorized that the work of producing consensus was done in the "superstructure" of society, which is composed of social institutions, political structures, and culture, and what it produced consensus for was the "base," the economic relations of production.

Marx reasoned that as the socio-economic conditions worsened for the proletariat, they would develop a class consciousness that revealed their exploitation at the hands of the wealthy capitalist class of bourgeoisie, and then they would revolt, demanding changes to smooth the conflict. According to Marx, if the changes made to appease conflict maintained a capitalist system, then the cycle of conflict would repeat. However, if the changes made created a new system, like socialism, then peace and stability would be achieved.


یواس‌اس کانفلیکت (ای‌ام-۴۲۶)

یواس‌اس کانفلیکت (ای‌ام-۴۲۶) (به انگلیسی: USS Conflict (AM-426) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۱۷۲ فوت (۵۲ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۵۲ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس کانفلیکت (ای‌ام-۴۲۶)
Zohid
Mal
‌B‌ndaزi: ۱۳ اوت ۱۹۵۱
Qarz: ۱۶ دسامبر ۱۹۵۲
Mشخصtصt صlli
Va: ۶۳۰ long ton (۶۴۰ تن)
Dara: ۱۷۲ فوت (۵۲ متر)
پahna: ۳۶ فوت (۱۱ متر)
Xabar: ۱۰ فوت (۳٫۰ متر)
Surat: ۱۶ گره (۳۰ کیلومتر بر ساعت؛ ۱۸ مایل بر ساعت)

Ín yک mقlhٔh خrd tti yya chقyقst. Mytwavnid b b ststrش chn b b vyxyzdiya zm znid.


Conflict AM-426 - History

1776 justice, Court of Oyer, Terminer, and Gaol
Delivery, Worcester County, 1783-1784. MILI-
TARY SERVICE: lieutenant in Capt. Joseph Mitch-
ell's Company, Worcester County Militia, 1748
captain, by 1757. STANDS ON PUBLIC/PRIVATE IS-
SUES: Accused in 1784 by Nehemiah Holland (?-
1788) of Tory sympathies during the war, al-
though Holland's credibility is open to question.
Selby's brother, Col. William Selby (?-1793) of
Accomack County, Virginia, also charged in a
deposition to the governor and the Council that
his brother was a Tory. WEALTH DURING LIFETIME.
PERSONAL PROPERTY: assessed value £1,152.14.0,
including 23 slaves and 20 oz. plate, 1783 32
slaves, 1790. LAND AT FIRST ELECTION: 3,722 acres
in Worcester County and Accomack County, Vir-
ginia (inherited 750 acres from his father and 397
acres possibly from other kin obtained 249 acres
through marriage and 2,326 acres by patent and
purchase he had previously sold 1,081 acres by

1773). SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN LAND BETWEEN

FIRST ELECTION AND DEATH: purchased and pat-
ented 1,407 acres and part of a lot in Snow Hill
and sold 904 acres, 1778-1790 gave 447 acres to
his son John in 1779, but repurchased the land
after his son's death in 1780 sold his sawmill and
gristmill in 1790, four weeks before his death.
WEALTH AT DEATH. DIED: between November 13
and December 10, 1790, when his will was pro-
bated in Worcester County. PERSONAL PROP-
ERTY: TEV, at least £1,348.12.11 (will mentioned
at least 37 slaves). LAND: approximately 4,000
acres in Worcester County.

SELBY, PARKER (?-ca. 1746/47). BORN: at
"Bantry," his father's plantation in Mattapany
Hundred, Worcester County second son. NA-
TIVE: third generation. RESIDED: at "Bantry,"
Mattapony Hundred, Worcester County. FAMILY
BACKGROUND. FATHER: Parker Selby (1675-1705/
6), eldest son of Daniel Selby, the Elder (?-1696),
and wife Mary Parker, who immigrated from Ac-
comack County, Virginia, by 1675. STEPFATHER:
by July 1708, John Purnell (?-ca. 1742). MOTHER:
Tabitha, daughter of John Bailey (?-1716/17) of
Accomack County, Virginia. HALF BROTHER:
Daniel Selby (?-1721), who married Mary (?-
1772), daughter of John Outten (?-1709) of Som-
erset County. SISTER Edith. HALF SISTERS So-
phia Purnell, who married (first name unknown)
Jenckins Sarah Purnell, who married first, (first
name unknown) Kellam, and second, (first name
unknown) Outten Joyce Purnell, who married
(first name unknown) Niebald (Newbold) Tab-

itha, who married Bowen Crappers and Eliza-
beth, who married Scarborough Major. ADDI-
TIONAL COMMENT: His father married first, Martha,
daughter of John Osbourne (?-1687) of Somerset
County and wife Atalanta. His stepfather married
second, Martha (?-1780), who married second,
by 1742/43, William Selby (1683-1762). BIRINChI
COUSIN: John Selby (?-1754). MARRIED by 1724
Mary (?-1776), daughter of John Watts of Ac-
comack County, Virginia, and wife Priscilla, the
daughter of John White of Accomack County.
Her sisters were Tabitha, who married Robert
Hill Sarah, who married Francis Hamling. Meri
Selby married second, by 1752, Daniel Selby (?-
1770). CHILDREN. SONS: John Selby (?-1790) Par-
ker Selby (?-1773) Col. William (?-1793) of Ac-
comack County, Virginia Zadock James and
Micajah, alias William II (?-1766), who married
Mary, daughter of Elizabeth Truitt. DAUGHTER:
Tabitha Bailey (?-1752), who never married.

PRIVATE CAREER. EDUCATION: literate. RELIGIOUS
AFFILIATION: Protestant. SOCIAL STATUS AND AC-
TIVITIES: Gent., by 1742. OCCUPATIONAL PRO-
FILE: probably planter owned a schooner. PUBLIC

CAREER. LEGISLATIVE SERVICE: Lower House,

Worcester County, 1744 (elected to the 2nd ses-
sion of the 1742-1744 Assembly), 1745. MILI-
TARY SERVICE: probably captain in Worcester
County Militia. WEALTH DURING LIFETIME. LAND
AT FIRST ELECTION: ca. 2,000 acres in Worcester
County and Accomack County, Virginia (850 acres
in Worcester County inherited from father 500
acres in Virginia inherited from his grandfather
500 acres in Worcester County acquired through
marriage 672 acres in Worcester County through
purchase had sold an additional 552 acres before
1744). ADDITIONAL COMMENT: By 1741, Selby had
purchased 462 acres on the Indian River in
Worcester County, 212 acres of which had be-
longed to Thomas Aydelott. In 1744 Selby cos-
ponsored a bill in the General Assembly to lay
out 80 lots on a 40-acre tract to be situated on
Thomas Aydelott's plantation on the Indian River
in Worcester County. The town so created was
to be named Baltimore Town, and the bill was
passed into law. SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN LAND

BETWEEN FIRST ELECTION AND DEATH: sold 82

acres in Worcester County, 1744. WEALTH AT
DEATH. DIED: in Virginia due to an illness that
required a physician's attendance his will was
made on November 8, 1746, in York County,
Virginia, and was probated in that county on March

16, 1746/47. PERSONAL PROPERTY: TEV,

£1,563.9.11 (including 16 slaves, several books on


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Looking forward in Arctic diplomacy

The articles featured in this series not only investigate the past, but also interrogate the future. As fisheries stocks move north due to warming ocean temperatures, what are the potentials for new – or renewed – resource conflict in the Arctic? How will contemporary Arctic competition – including great-power competition – manifest in the context of a strategically valuable Greenland? What paths might Arctic militarization take in the post-arms control context, after the events of 9/11 revealed American vulnerabilities to modern large-scale threats? And how can growing military tensions in the Arctic be mitigated using past strategies for diplomacy and de-escalation? The forthcoming series ultimately provides useful analysis of current and potential future risks for military conflict in the Arctic regions, as well as lessons learned for the mitigation or resolution of such conflicts.


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