Ma `lumot

Buyuk Kir



Injilda Kir kim bo'lgan?

Kir - Bibliyada 30 martadan ko'proq eslatilgan shoh va eramizdan avvalgi 539 yildan mdash530 yillar mobaynida Fors ustidan hukmronlik qilgan Buyuk Kir (shuningdek, Kir II yoki Katta Kir) sifatida tanilgan. Bu butparast podshoh yahudiylar tarixida muhim ahamiyatga ega, chunki uning hukmronligi ostida yahudiylarga 70 yillik asirlikdan keyin birinchi marta Isroilga qaytishga ruxsat berilgan.

Injilning eng ajoyib bashoratlaridan birida, Rabbiy Kirning yahudiylarni Ishayoga ozod qilish haqidagi farmonini ochib berdi. Payg'ambar Kir yashaganidan yuz ellik yil oldin uni ism -sharifi bilan chaqirdi va yahudiylarga Kirning xayrixohligi haqida tafsilotlarni aytib berdi: “Xudovand o'z moylanganiga, o'ng qo'limdan ilgari xalqlarni bo'ysundirgan Kirga aytgani shu. uni. . . "Men sizni ismingiz bilan chaqiraman va sharafli unvon bilan taqdirlayman, lekin siz meni tan olmaysiz" (Ishayo 45: 1, 4, shuningdek qarang: 41: 2-25 42: 6). Xudo barcha xalqlar ustidan hukmronligini e'lon qilib, Kir haqida shunday deydi: "U mening cho'ponim va men xohlagan hamma narsani qiladi" (Ishayo 44:28).

Payg'ambarlik bashoratini bajarish uchun Yahudiy xalqini ozod qilish to'g'risida Kirning farmoni 2 Solnomalar 36:22 va ndash23da yozilgan: “Endi Eron shohi Eremiyo og'zidan Egamizning so'zini bajarish uchun, Eron shohi Kirning birinchi yilida. U Fors shohi Kirning ruhini qo'zg'atdi, shuning uchun u butun shohligi bo'ylab e'lon qildi va yozib qo'ydi: "Eron shohi Kir shunday deydi:" Osmon Xudosi - Egamiz menga barcha shohliklarni berdi. U menga Yahudodagi Quddusda uy qurishni buyurdi. Kim sizlarning orangizda butun xalqidan bo'lsa, Egangiz Xudo u bilan bo'lsin. U ko'tarilsin. ”” “Eski Ahd kitoblarida Kir haqida eslatilgan Ezra va Doniyor bor.

Qir podshoh yahudiylarga Zerubbabel va oliy ruhoniy Yoshua boshchiligidagi Quddusdagi ma'badni tiklashda faol yordam berdi. Kir ma'bad xazinalarini Quddusga tikladi va qurilish xarajatlarini qirollik xazinasidan to'lashga ruxsat berdi (Ezra 1: 4 va ndash11 6: 4 va ndash5). Kirning xayrixohligi yahudiylar asirlikda bo'lgan 70 yil davomida ma'badga ibodat qilishni qayta boshlashga yordam berdi. Ba'zi sharhlovchilar Kirning Quddusni tiklash haqidagi farmonini yahudiylikning rasmiy boshlanishi sifatida ko'rsatadilar.

Yahudiyadan deportatsiya qilingan va keyinchalik Kir hukmronligi ostiga qo'yilgan yahudiylar orasida Doniyor payg'ambar bor. Darhaqiqat, bizga Doniyor taxminan qirol Kirning uchinchi yiligacha, taxminan miloddan avvalgi 536 yilgacha xizmat qilgani aytiladi (Doniyor 10: 1). Demak, Doniyor yahudiylarni qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun chiqarilgan farmonda shaxsiy ishtiroki bor edi. Tarixchi Jozefusning aytishicha, Kirga Injil bashoratlari haqida yozilgan.Yahudiylarning antik davrlari, XI.1.2). Bu kitoblarni Kirga ko'rsatgan shaxs, Forsning yuqori martabali amaldori Doniyor edi (Doniyor 6:28).

Yahudiylar bilan bo'lgan munosabatidan tashqari, Kir inson huquqlari, o'zining ajoyib harbiy strategiyasi, Sharq va G'arb madaniyatlari ko'prigi bilan mashhur. U ulkan ta'sir shohi va Xudo Eski Ahdning muhim bashoratini bajarishda yordam bergan odam edi. Xudo Kirni o'z xalqi uchun "cho'pon" sifatida ishlatgani, Hikmatlar 21: 1 ning haqiqatini ko'rsatadi: "Shohning yuragi Egamizning qo'lida, uni xohlagan joyiga suv oqimi kabi yo'naltiradi".


G'olibdan yoshlik belgisigacha: Buyuk Kir kim bo'lgan?

Nega Eron janubi-markazidagi oddiy tosh qabr, avtoritar rahbarlar tomonidan hokimiyatni qo'lga kiritishni qonuniylashtirish uchun ishlatilgan, hozirda norozi yoshlar uchun markazga aylangan? Lloyd Lvelvelin-Jons qadimgi Fors imperatorining o'zgaruvchan obrazini o'rganadi

Endi bu musobaqa yopildi

E'lon qilingan: 2020 yil 16 -aprel, soat 12:25

Eronning Shiraz shahridan 50 mil shimoli-sharqda, aniq bo'lmagan joyda, shag'alli tekislikdan yakka, blokli bino ko'tarilgan. Olti qadam oddiy cho'zinchoq qutiga olib keladi, tepasida peshtoqli tom va asal rangli toshdan qurilgan. Tasodifiy kuzatuvchilar uchun bu juda katta ahamiyatga ega sayt deb aytish qiyin. 23 asr oldin Aleksandr Makedonskiy Forsni zabt etganidan keyin uni qidirishga majbur bo'lgan edi - va bugun Aleksandr tashrifidan ikki asr oldin o'z qabilaviy vatanida Pasargadae shahrida qurilgan yolg'iz va nafis Buyuk Kir qabri boshqa diqqat markazida. qandaydir e'tibor.

Qadimgi tarix professori sifatida o'tgan 20 yil ichida men Eronning keng va xilma -xil landshaftlarini keng o'rganib chiqdim, boy tarixini kashf qildim va mehmondo'st va madaniyatli odamlar bilan uchrashdim. Bu yigirma yil mobaynida men Eron jamiyatida ko'plab o'zgarishlarga guvoh bo'ldim - ba'zilari yaxshi, ba'zilari unchalik yoqmaydi - lekin ko'p muammolarga va g'arbiy ommaviy axborot vositalarida tasvirlangan dushmanlik tasviriga qaramay, men majburan qaytadigan joy bo'lib qolaman. Har safar men majburan tashrif buyuradigan ba'zi joylar bor: Isfaxondagi Naqsh-e-Jahon ("Dunyo tasviri" nomi bilan mashhur) maydoni, 2500 yillik Shiraz yaqinidagi Persepolis. atirgullar va bulbullar shahri va Pasargadadagi ajoyib qabr.

Hatto o'zining diniy muhofazasining ulug'vorligidan mahrum bo'lgan, Kirning dafn marosimi hayratlanarli, atmosfera joyidir. 90 -yillarning oxirida men tez -tez yolg'iz qolishdan oldin tez suratga tushish uchun to'xtab qolgan bir nechta mahalliy odamlar yoki 20 daqiqalik g'azabdan keyin sayohatchilarni tashlab ketishdi. yana jim turadigan joy. So'nggi olti yil ichida tashrif buyuruvchilar soni ko'paydi. Sayyohlarning yuk tashish hajmi, shuningdek, eronlik sayohatchilar soni ham tez o'sdi. Hozirgi vaqtda Pasargadeyda bir lahzalik tinchlikni topish kamdan -kam uchraydi.

Ijtimoiy tarmoqlarda kuzatilgan 2016 yil 29 oktyabr voqealariga meni hech narsa tayyorlamadi. O'sha kuni 15-30–30 ming kishilik olomon (aniq raqamlarni aytish qiyin) qabrning to'rtburchaklar platformasi atrofida to'planishdi, xuddi ziyoratchilar xuddi Makkadagi Ka'bani aylanib yurishgandek. Bu olomon: "Eron - bizning mamlakat!" ular baqirishdi. "Kir bizning otamiz! Ruhoniylik qoidasi - bu zolimlik! ” Bu Islom Respublikasida xavfli so'zlar, lekin menimcha, bu davrning alomatidir.

Inqilobdan uzoq masofa

Qiziqarli fakt: eronliklarning 70 foizga yaqini 40 yoshgacha. Eron 1980-yillardagi Eron-Iroq uzoq davom etgan va vayronagarchilik urushidan keyin tug'ilishning hukumat tomonidan qo'llab-quvvatlanishi natijasida yosh demografiyaga ega. Eron yoshlarining aksariyati o'sha urushdan va Eronning DNKini keskin o'zgartirgan islomiy inqilobdan uzoqlashayotganini his qilmoqda. Eronni boshqaradigan mullalar Eronning yosh yigit-qizlarining jo'shqinligini anglatmaydi va islom shahar va qishloqlardagi aksariyat yoshlarga yoqmaydi. Islom, aslida, islomgacha bo'lgan eronlik identifikatsiyasining qayta tiklanishi bilan almashtirilmoqda. Milliyatchilik namoyishi tendentsiyasi islomgacha bo'lgan forscha ismlarning (Kir, Doro, Anaxita), Husayn, Ali va Fatema kabi odatiy musulmon ismlari o'rniga, tez-tez uchrab turishi bilan namoyon bo'ladi. faravaharzargarlik buyumlari, futbolkalar, tatuirovkalar va bamper-stikerlar bilan bezatilgan zardushtiylik ramzi. Islomdan oldingi fors o'tmishi zamonaviy eron ongida uyg'ondi va eronliklar hukmron tuzumni tanqid qilish uchun galvanizatsiyalanmoqda.

Eron 2500 yildan ko'proq vaqt davomida Ahamoniylar sulolasiga (miloddan avvalgi 559-330 yillar) cho'zilgan boy tarixga ega. Buyuk Kir va Axamoniylar vorislari shohlarini eronliklar asrlar davomida bag'rikenglik va hurmatga asoslangan imperiyani yaratgan qahramon figuralar deb bilishgan. Bu "tarix" Eron milliy g'ururi asos bo'lgan hikoyalarning to'laqonli kanonini taqdim etdi. Islom ertaklari va afsonalari Eron ruhiyatiga unchalik mustahkam ta'sir ko'rsatmaydi, chunki ular, albatta, chet ellik import edi.

Tarixiy Kir II (miloddan avvalgi c590–580 yillarda tug'ilgan)-Eronning Zagros tog'lari etagida unumdor ot boqiladigan Anshan kichik janubi-g'arbiy Fors podshohligining hukmdori. Fors qabilalari koalitsiyasi tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlangan Kir Eron shimoliga yurib, Eron shimolini egallagan Midiya qabilasiga hujum qildi. Keyin u diqqatini Midiya bilan chegaradosh erlarga, shu jumladan Kichik Osiyodagi kuchli qudratli Lidiya podshohligiga qaratdi (Anatoliya). U erda Kirning yunon tilida so'zlashadigan Sardis shahrini to'rdan tushirishi, fors rahbariga Ioniya sohilidagi boshqa muhim shaharlarni olishga imkon berdi. Miloddan avvalgi 540 yilga kelib, Kir qadimgi Bobil davlatiga hujum qilishga tayyor edi va o'z qo'shinini Mesopotamiyaga ko'chirdi. U miloddan avvalgi 539 yil 29 oktyabrda Bobilga kirib, shohi Nabonidni mag'lub etdi. Kir, Bobil rasmiylariga o'zlarining hukumat va diniy idoralarida ishlashlariga ruxsat berib, status -kvoni saqlab qolgan bo'lsa -da, o'g'li Kambisni shaharning regenti etib tayinladi.

Bobilning qulashi haqidagi ko'p ma'lumotimiz, akad tilida yozilgan va Bobil shahar devorining poydevoriga qo'yilgan loydan yasalgan artefakt deb ataladigan Kir silindridan keladi. 1879 yilda Iroq janubida, Bobil panteonining bosh xudosi Marduk ziyoratgohi yaqinida topilgan va o'sha paytdan beri Britaniya muzeyida saqlanmoqda. Kirning buyrug'iga binoan, matn Bobil nuqtai nazaridan yozilgan, lekin imperatorlik targ'ibotining asari sifatida: silindr qirolni Marduk chempioni sifatida ko'rsatib, Bobilni zabt etishini qonuniylashtirishga harakat qilmoqda. Bu ko'zni qamashtiradigan dam olish maskani, unda Kir Mesopotamiyani zabt etishni "Bobil ozodligi operatsiyasi" ning bir turi sifatida jasorat bilan taqdim etadi. Tsilindr bobilliklar Kirning o'z shahrini "ozod qilishidan" qanday foyda ko'rganini ta'kidlab, unga hurmat ko'rsatishni taklif qiladi. Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, boshqa shaharlar Kir davrida unchalik yaxshi bo'lmagan. Opis (zamonaviy Bag'dod yaqinidagi yana bir qadimiy Bobil shahri) fuqarolari qirg'in qilindi, mag'lubiyatga uchragan Sardis aholisi keyinchalik ommaviy ravishda deportatsiya qilindi.

Bobilni bosib olgandan keyingi yillarda Kir Turkiyaning g'arbiy sohilidan Afg'onistongacha cho'zilgan ulkan xalqaro imperiyani qurdi. Va Pasargadae-da u hashamatli rasmiy bog 'shaklida miniatyura imperiyasini qurdi. juftlik (yunon tilidan paradeylar), er yuzidagi jannat, Forsning tobora o'sib borayotgan imperatorlik qudratining jismoniy ifodasi sifatida, uning bosib olingan erlari bo'ylab o'simliklari ekilgan. Majmua saroylar va bochkali maqbarani o'z ichiga olgan, bunda miloddan avvalgi 530 yilda Kir sharqiy Massagetalar bilan jang qilganida vafot etganida (hozirgi Afg'onistonning Baqtriya qabilasi), u dafn etilgan.

Mag'rur meros

Islomdan oldingi fors tarixi maktablarda faqat yuzaki o'qitiladi, shuning uchun ajablanarli joyi yo'qki, eronliklar Kir imperiyasi qurilishi (qon to'kish va hammasi) haqidagi voqelikdan befarq, lekin shunga qaramay ular qadimiy merosi bilan faxrlanishlari aniq. Eronning ketma -ket rahbarlari bu mag'rurlikdan foydalangan va o'z rejalarini amalga oshirish uchun Buyuk Kir obrazidan foydalanganlar.

1970 -yillarda Eronning oxirgi shohi Muhammad Rizo Pahlaviy ochiq va g'ayrat bilan o'zini Buyuk Kirga o'xshatdi. U 1971 yilni Kir yili deb e'lon qildi va imperator quruvchi merosini Persepolis va Pasargadae dabdabali bayramlar bilan nishonladi, u erda bo'sh qabrda Kirning ruhiga murojaat qildi: "Kir, buyuk shoh! Shahanshoh, Ahamoniylar shohi, Eron erining shohi, mendan, Shahanshoh Men Eron va o'z xalqimdan salom yo'llayman ... siz, Eron tarixining abadiy qahramoni, dunyodagi eng qadimgi monarxiyaning asoschisi, dunyoning buyuk ozodligi, insoniyatning munosib farzandi! Kir, biz bugun sizning abadiy qabringizga yig'ildik va sizga aytmoqchimiz: xotirjam uxlang, chunki biz uyg'oqmiz va biz mag'rur merosimizga g'amxo'rlik qilish uchun doim hushyor bo'lamiz ”.

Shoh, shuningdek, Kirni birinchi marta inson huquqlari to'g'risidagi qonun loyihasini yaratgani uchun maqtadi. Bu Kir silindrining matnini uzoq vaqtdan beri tushunib kelayotgan noto'g'ri tushuncha, unda bitta satr bosqinchining shahar aholisiga qilgan munosabati haqida gapiradi: "Men ularning charchoqlarini ketkazdim va ularni xizmatdan ozod qildim". Ozodlik uchun yig'lash qiyin. Keyin Kir yahudiylarni Bobil asirligidan ozod qildi (va unga Ishayo payg'ambar tomonidan "Masih - Xudoning moylangani" unvoni berilgan) va ularning hammasiga qaramay, o'z vatanlariga qaytishlariga ruxsat berib, uning obro'sini oshirdi. inson huquqlari kurashchisi. Undan yiroq: Kir boshqa Yaqin Sharq hukmdorlari kabi shafqatsiz edi.

Shunga qaramay, Inson huquqlari to'g'risidagi birinchi qonun loyihasini yaratuvchi Kirning obro'si haligacha saqlanib qoldi. Oxirgi shoh xuddi shu ruhda hayratda qolishni va eslashni juda xohlardi va u 1971 yilgi bayramining rasmiy belgisi sifatida Kir tsilindrini ishlatib, uni banknotalar va tangalarga yopishtirib qo'ydi, hatto Eron taqvimini ham hukmronlik davriga mos qilib o'zgartirdi. 2500 yil oldin Buyuk Kir. Muhammad Rizo Pahlaviy dunyoga Kurning qayta tug'ilganligini ko'rsatish uchun BMTga silindrsimon faksimni hozirgacha sovg'a qildi, u Nyu -York shahridagi BMT qarorgohidagi foyedagi shisha qutida namoyish etilgan.

Yaqinda, 2009 yildagi bahsli prezidentlik saylovlari arafasida, Eronning o'sha paytdagi prezidenti Mahmud Ahmadinajod, qonuniylik darajasiga qaytishga umid qilib, o'zini chet el dushmanlariga qarshi kurashda etakchi millatchi sifatida ko'rsata boshladi. Britaniya muzeyi Eron milliy muzeyiga Kir va uning merosi haqidagi maxsus ko'rgazma uchun asl silindrni qarzga berishga rozi bo'lganida, u diplomatik g'alabaga erishdi. Minglab eronliklar Tehronga bir umr ko'rish uchun kelishdi, garchi bu Bobilda ishlab chiqarilgan va Akad tilida yozilgan va Mesopotamiya auditoriyasiga qaratilgan bo'lsa-da, ular buni eronlik ramzi sifatida qabul qilishdi.

"Eron haqida gapirish - bu geografik birlik yoki irq haqida emas", - deya e'lon qildi Prezident Ahmadinejod, Tehronda bo'lib o'tgan marosimda, Buyuk Kirning kostyumini kiygan aktyorning ko'kragiga faxriy medalni taqib. "Eron haqida gapirish madaniyat, insoniy qadriyatlar, adolat, sevgi va qurbonlik haqida gapirish bilan barobardir."

Cyrus jinni

Eronliklarga qadimgi Fors imperiyasi qurilishi haqiqati va haqiqatan ham Kir silindrining matnining mazmuni to'g'risida kam ma'lumot berilgan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin bu Kir jazosining tarqalishini to'xtatmagan. Eronlik-amerikalik jurnalist Azade Moaveni yozganida ko'pchilikning his-tuyg'ularini takrorlagan Vaqt 2007 yildagi jurnal: "Persepolisda o'zining ulug'vor poytaxtini qurgan axamoniylar podshohlari [jumladan Kir] ham o'z davri uchun juda zo'r edilar. Ular dunyodagi eng birinchi inson huquqlari deklaratsiyasini yozdilar va qullikka qarshi edilar.

Hujjatni noto'g'ri tushunishning aksariyati ko'p yillar davomida Internetda tarqalgan ko'plab soxta tarjimalardan kelib chiqadi. Silindrli firibgarlik qurbonlaridan biri 2003 yilda Nobel Tinchlik mukofotiga sazovor bo'lgan eronlik huquqshunos Shirin Ebadiy mukofotni qabul qilib olgan edi, u Kirning so'zlariga asoslanib shunday dedi: "Men urf-odatlar va dinlarni hurmat qilishimni e'lon qilaman. Mening imperiyadagi xalqlar va men hech qachon mening gubernatorlarim va qo'l ostimdagilarga men tirik ekanman, ularga yomon qarashlariga yoki haqorat qilishlariga yo'l qo'ymang. Bundan buyon ... men o'z monarxiyamni hech bir millatga yuklamayman. Har kim buni qabul qilishga haqli va agar ulardan birortasi rad qilsa, men hech qachon urushga hukmronlik qilishga qaror qilmayman ». Gafini topgach, u dahshatga tushdi.

Ertakdagi eng so'nggi burilish - bu faollar tomonidan Kir tasvirining ommaviy tarzda qabul qilinishi, 2016 yilda uning qabri boshiga tushgan vaziyat. Bu namoyish sanasi, 29 oktyabr, hozir eronliklar tomonidan Buyuk Kir kuni sifatida nishonlanadi. , lekin bu hukumat tomonidan tan olinmagan norasmiy bayram. Darhaqiqat, islomiy rejim uning mashhurligidan hayratda, hayron va g'azabda. Bir hurmatli mulla, katta oyatulloh Noori-Hamedani, Pasargada bayramlariga qarshi chiqdi. "Shoh aytardi:" Ey Kir, biz uyg'oqmiz, tinchgina uxla ", dedi u. "Endi bir guruh odamlar Kirning qabri atrofida to'planishdi va ular tavf qilishmoqda, ro'mollarini olib, yig'lab yuborishdi (ular shia imom Husayn uchun bo'lgani kabi). Bu odamlar [odamlar] inqilobga qarshi. Men hayronmanki, bu odamlar Kir qabrining atrofida to'planishadi. Kim hokimiyat tepasida bu odamlarning yig'ilishiga ruxsat berib beparvolik qilgan? Biz inqilobiy va islomiy mamlakatdamiz va bu inqilob Payg'ambar va imomlarning harakatlarining davomidir ”. Uning qo'rquv hissi deyarli seziladi. Bu harakat qayerga olib keladi? Kim biladi - lekin bu erda qolish uchun tuyuladi.

So'nggi 60 yil ichida Buyuk Kir ikki rejim tomonidan o'z kuchini mustahkamlash uchun ishlatilgan. Shoh pahlaviy monarxiyasining pozitsiyasini Kirning bag'rikenglik siyosatining tabiiy davomi sifatida tasvirlab berdi, garchi pahlaviylar hukmronligi bag'rikenglikdan boshqa narsa emas edi. Ahmadinajod, Kurusning butparast ekanligiga e'tibor berishga tayyor edi, chunki u juda zarur bo'lgan millatchilikni faollashtirdi, e'tiborini tortishuvlardan chalg'itdi, u Kirni shia avliyolaridan biriga aylantirdi.

Endi Eron yoshlari Kirni shahs va mullolardan ajratib, o'z shaxsiylari deb da'vo qilishdi, uni smartfon va planshetlarida ko'chaga olib chiqishdi. Kir haqidagi afsona shishib, uning kulti kuchayib bormoqda. Haqiqat, Kirni yangi ozod qiluvchi sifatida tanlash zarurati bilan almashtirildi. Eronning fors o'tmishidan foydalanishi, qadimiy tarix o'lmaganligining chuqur isbotidir: antik davr tirik va bugungi kunda ham muhim.

Lloyd Lvelvelin-Jons-Kardiff universitetining qadimiy tarix professori


Tushdagi tasavvurlar va ziddiyatli yilnomalar

Neo-Bobil shohi Nabonidus, hukmdor bo'lgan birinchi yilida (miloddan avvalgi 556 yoki 555 yillar), o'z yilnomasida, unga xudosi Marduk tomonidan tush ko'rganligini aytadi:

Mening abadiy shohligim boshida ular (buyuk xudolar) menga tushimda vahiy ko'rsatdilar. Marduk menga shunday dedi: "Siz gapiradigan Umman-manda, u, uning yurti va uning yonida yurgan shohlar uzoq yashamaydi. Uchinchi yilning boshida, Anshan shohi Kir, uning yosh xizmatkori chiqadi. U oz sonli kuchlari bilan Umman-mandaning ko'p sonli kuchlarini yo'q qiladi. U Umman-manda shohi Astyagni qo'lga oladi va uni o'z mamlakatiga asir qiladi.

Aniqki, Nabonidus Kir Astyagdan mustaqil bo'lib, isyon ko'tarishni niyat qilgani haqida razvedka ma'lumotlarini olgan edi. E'tibor bering, Nabonidus yozuvida Umman-manda o'z shohligiga yuk sifatida gapiradi. Biroq, uning tushlari umidsizlik va noma'lum narsadan qo'rqish edi. Nabonid Astiyagni yaxshi bilar edi, lekin Kir hali ham sir edi.

Ettinchi yili Nabonidda u Kir va Astyag o'rtasidagi ziddiyat haqida shunday degan edi:

[Astyaglar] [qo'shinini] safarbar qildi va u Anshan shohi Kirga qarshi bostirib keldi. armiya Astyagga qarshi isyon ko'tardi va u asirga olindi. Ular uni Kirga topshirdilar [...]. Kir shoh shahar Ekbatana tomon yurdi. Kumush, oltin, tovarlar, mol -mulk, [...] u Ekbatanadan o'lja sifatida olib, Ansanga etkazdi. [...] armiyasining mol -mulki [va] mulki.

Bu yozuv Gerodotnikidan farqli o'laroq juda boshqacha hikoya qiladi. Farqi shundaki, Astyag isyonni bostirish uchun Anshanga bostirib kirgan, lekin o'z navbatida uning qo'shini isyon ko'tarib, uni Kirga topshirgan. Biroq, bu Gerodot noto'g'ri degani emas. Bu sodir bo'lgan voqeaning aksi, chunki Gerodotning aytishicha, Kir Midiyaga qisman to'g'ri kelgan, lekin faqat keyin Astiyag jangi va qamoqqa olinishi bilan Kurus Ummon-manda poytaxti Ekbatanani egallash uchun Midiya bo'ylab yurish qildi.

Marduk va ajdaho Marduk, Bobilning bosh xudosi, momaqaldiroqlari bilan Tiamatni yo'q qiladi. Rölyefdan chizish ( Jamoat domeni )

Shuni unutmaslik kerakki, bu urushning oxiri emas edi. Garchi Astyages hozir mahbus bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, hali ham miloddan avvalgi 550 yilgacha tugamaydigan yana uch yillik qon to'kish mavjud edi.

Bu Ancient Origins PREMIUM eksklyuziv maqolasining bepul ko'rinishi.

Ushbu maqolaning qolgan qismidan bahramand bo'lish uchun u erda bizga qo'shiling . Siz obuna bo'lganingizda, siz barcha Premium maqolalarga zudlik bilan va to'liq kirish huquqiga ega bo'ling , bepul elektron kitoblar, tajribali mehmonlarning veb -seminari, onlayn -do'konlar uchun chegirmalar va boshqalar!


Muqaddas Kitob tarixi: Buyuk Kir, Fors imperiyasining asoschisi va Bobilni zabt etgan

Axemaniyaliklarning qirollik irqidan oldingi Kambizning o'g'li. Uning nasabnomasi, o'zi aytganidek, quyidagicha: “Men - Kir to'rtta viloyat, Kambis o'g'li, buyuk shoh, Ansan shahri podshosi, Kirning nabirasi, buyuk shoh, Ansan shahri podshosi, Sispis (Teispes) ning nabirasi, buyuk qirol, Ansan shahri podshosi, suvereniteti Bel va Nebo sevadigan, abadiy qirollik urug'i, va#8221 va boshqalar (WAI, V, ko'plik 35, 20-22).

Bobil yozuvlarida Assan (Ansan, Anzan) Elam deb tushuntiriladi, aslida bu shahar poytaxt edi, ehtimol Kirning ismi elamit bo'lgan, ammo ma'nosi shubhali. Shuning uchun uni fors tilida "xor" va "quyosh" bilan bog'laydigan yunon etimologiyasi rad etilishi mumkin. Strabonning so'zlariga ko'ra, uni dastlab Agradat deb atashgan, bu nom unga Kir daryosidan olingan. Ammo, ehtimol, bu uning bobosi (ehtimol uning ismi bilan atalgan) Kir deb nomlanishiga sabab bo'lgan.

Uning tug'ilishi va hokimiyatga ko'tarilishining bir nechta versiyalari qayd etilgan. Gerodot (i.95) uchtasini eslatib o'tadi. U aytgan narsada (i.107 ff), Mandane Midiya qiroli Astyagning qizi ekanligi aytiladi, u tushida o'g'lining sulolasi ustidan yakuniy g'alabasini bashorat qilgan. u tengdoshlaridan bo'lmagan Kambis ismli forsga uylangan. Ikkinchi tush uni kutayotgan bolasini kuzatishga majbur qildi va Kir dunyoga kelganida Astyaglar bolani o'z qarindoshi Xarpagusga topshirishdi. U buni xohlamay, chaqaloqni Mitradates ismli cho'ponga topshirdi, uning xotini hali tug'ilmagan bolasini tug'ib, chaqaloq Kirning hayotini saqlab qolishga rozi bo'ldi. Keyinchalik, o'zining o'ta xatti -harakatlari natijasida, Kirni butun hikoyani o'rganish uchun kelgan Astyaglar tan olishdi va uni qutqarishdi, chunki bir vaqtlar uning sheriklari tomonidan o'yinda shoh bo'lganlarida, sehrgarlar uning yakuniy qirollik holati haqida bashorat qilishgan. bajarilgan bo'lishi kerak. Astiagning Harpagusdan buyruqlarga aniq bo'ysunmagani uchun qasos olgani yaxshi ma'lum: o'g'li o'ldirilgan, bir qismi esa niqob kiyib, ovqat eyishga berilgan. Garpagus qayg'uga to'lgan bo'lsa -da, o'z his -tuyg'ularini yashirdi va o'g'lining qoldiqlari bilan ketdi va Kir, vaqti kelib, ota -onasi, Kembis va Mandan bilan qolish uchun yuborildi. Keyinchalik, Xarpagus Kirni qo'zg'olon ko'tarishga ko'ndirdi va Astyag ko'r-ko'rona Harpagusni O'rta qo'shinning bosh qo'mondoni etib tayinladi, oxirgi ismi Kir tomon ketdi. Bu natija ikkinchisining oson g'alabasi edi, lekin Astyagus unga nabirasini ayamaslikni maslahat bergan magilarni mixga mixlab qo'ydi. Boshqa, ammo kichikroq qo'shinni yig'ib, u maydonni shaxsan oldi, lekin mag'lubiyatga uchradi va qo'lga olindi. Ammo Midiya va Eron shohi bo'lgan Kir unga hurmat va yaxshi munosabatda bo'ldi.

Ksenofon ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Cyropedia i. 2 -bo'lim, Kirning otasi Kambiz Fors shohi edi. (QAYD: U Forsni o'z hukmronligiga qo'shgan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin Kirning so'zlariga ko'ra, u Ansan yoki Elam shohi bo'lgan.) 12 -yiligacha Kir Forsda ta'lim olgan, uni onasi bilan Astiyagga yuborishgan. , kimga u birdaniga katta mehr ko'rsatdi. Aytishlaricha, uning o'g'li Cyaxares taxtga o'tirgan va keyin Kir uning bosh qo'mondoni bo'lib, Lidiyaliklarni boshqalarga bo'ysundirgan. U ikki marta ossuriyaliklarni (= bobilliklarni) mag'lubiyatga uchratdi, bu mamlakatni oxirgi mag'lubiyati Midiya qiroli tirikligida edi. Ammo, Cyropedia - bu romantika bo'lgani uchun, tarixiy tafsilotlar katta ahamiyatga ega emas.

Damashqlik Nikolay Kirni Atradates ismli mardiyalik qaroqchining o'g'li deb ta'riflaydi, onasining ismi Argoste. Astiaglar saroyida xizmat qilar ekan, uni Artembarks, piyolachi asrab oldi va shu tariqa mashhurlikka erishdi. Kir endi qaroqchi-otasini Fors satrapiga aylantirdi va noshukurlik bilan o'z shohi va xayrixohiga qarshi fitna uyushtirdi. Qo'zg'olonga tayyorgarlik ko'rildi, u va uning generali Oibaras Xirbada g'alaba qozonishdi, lekin Parsagadaeda mag'lub bo'lishdi, u erda otasi Atradates qo'lga olindi va keyin vafot etdi. Kir endi tog'li uyiga boshpana topdi, lekin ayollarning mazaxlari uni va yordamchilarini yana yubordi, bu safar g'alaba va hukmronlikka.

Ctesias, shuningdek, Kir va Astyag (Astyigas) o'rtasida hech qanday munosabatlar yo'qligini aytadi, ular Kirni Midiyani bosib olgach, Ekbatanaga qochib ketishgan va u erda qizi Amitis va uning eri Spitamas yashirishgan. Aytishlaricha, agar Astyag rozi bo'lmaganida, Kir, ularni bolalari bilan qiynoqqa solgan bo'lardi. Keyin Kir Astiyagni ozod qildi va yolg'on gapirgani uchun erini o'ldirgan qizi Amtisga uylandi. Aytilishicha, baqtriyaliklar Kirning Astyag va uning qizi bilan yarashganidan shunchalik mamnun edilarki, ular ixtiyoriy ravishda taslim bo'lishadi. Ctesias, Kirni sakaalar tomonidan asir olinganini aytadi, lekin u fido bo'ldi. U hindular yordami bilan Derbits bilan jangda olgan yarasidan vafot etdi.

Shuncha noaniqlik paytida, bobilliklarning zamonaviy hujjatlariga murojaat qilish yengillikdir, garchi ular Kir haqida va yoshligi haqida batafsil gapirishmasa -da va faqat o'z karerasining boshqa davrlarini nazarda tutsalar. darhol qiziqqan, shunga qaramay, zamonaviy bo'lgani uchun, umuman maxsus hokimiyatga ega bo'lishi mumkin. Yozuvlarga ko'ra, Astyaglar bilan to'qnashuv miloddan avvalgi 549 yilda sodir bo'lgan. Nabonid silindridan biz Midiyaliklarning jangovar operatsiyalarida juda muvaffaqiyatli bo'lganlarini va hatto ular qamal qilgan Xarangacha uzoqqa ketganini bilamiz. Bobil shohi Nabonid Merodaxning tushida aytgan ko'rsatmalarini bajarib, o'sha shahardagi Oy xudosi Sin ma'badini tiklashni xohladi. Biroq, bu qamal natijasida, u qila olmadi va unga tushida Astyagning kuchi uch yil oxirida ag'darilishi ma'lum bo'ldi. “Ular (gunohlar va Merodax xudolari) Anzan shohi Kirni o'zining kichik xizmatkorlari bilan kichik armiyasi bilan unga (Midiya) qarshi ko'tarilishiga sabab bo'ldilar, u keng Umman-manda (Midiya) ni vayron qildi. ), Midiya shohi Istuvegu (Astiyag), u qo'lga olindi va o'z eriga asir oldi. ” ) quyidagicha: “ .

Kir o'z shoh shahri Ekbatana eriga bordi. U Ecbatanadan kumush, oltin, mebel, tovarlarni olib chiqib, Ansan eriga qo'lga kiritgan mebel va buyumlarini olib ketdi. ”

Bu miloddan avvalgi 549 yilga to'g'ri keladigan Nabonidusning 6 -yili uchun yozuvdir va u bu erda "Ansan shohi" deb nomlanganligini payqadi. #8217 9 -yil (miloddan avvalgi 546 yil), bu erda “ Parsu (Fors) shohi Kir o'z qo'shinini yig'ib, Arbela ostidan Dajla kesib o'tgani va#8221 va keyingi oyda (Iyyar) kirgani aytilgan. Is- …. erlari, kimdir pora olganga o'xshaydi, bu joyni garnizonga qo'ydi va shundan keyin u erda podshoh hukmronlik qildi. Biroq, o'tish joyi nomukammal va shuning uchun ham noaniq, lekin biz, ehtimol, Nabonidus hukmronlik qilishni da'vo qilgan yo'lni egallash uchun Kirning tayyorgarlik harakatini ko'rishimiz mumkin. Keyingi yili (miloddan avvalgi 545 yil) forslar tomonidan yana bir harakat sodir bo'lganga o'xshaydi, chunki Elam hukmdori (?) Deb ataladi va Erech gubernatori bilan qandaydir aloqada bo'lgan. Bu vaqt mobaynida hamma narsa xuddi Bobilda bo'lgani kabi, podshohning o'g'li (uning ismi aytilmagan, balki Belshazar nazarda tutilgan) va Akkadda qolgan askarlar (ehtimol bu so'zning eski ma'nosida ishlatilgan. Sippar atrofidagi tuman), bu erda asosiy hujum amalga oshirilishi kutilgan edi. Erech gubernatoriga havola, ba'zi bir fitna ko'proq janub tomon yurganini anglatishi mumkin, bu harakat mahalliy hokimiyat johillikda qolgandir.

To'rt yil hisob -kitob qilinmagan bo'shliqdan so'ng, bizda Erech ma'budasi Ishtar va Par va#8230 xudolari haqida so'z yuritadigan to'rtta chiziq izlari bor. (? Fors) deb ataladi. Shundan so'ng, uzoq kirish keladi, bu sana uzilgan bo'lsa -da, Nabonidusning 17 -yiliga to'g'ri keladi. Qirolning ma'badga tashrifi haqida gapiriladi va qo'zg'olon haqida eslatib o'tiladi. Keyin ma'lum diniy marosimlar o'tkazildi, qolganlari esa o'tkazib yuborildi. Ko'rinishidan, Tammuz oyida Kir Afisda jang qilgan va Dajla bo'yida joylashgan Akkad qo'shiniga hujum qilgan. Oyning 14 -kuni Sipparni jangsiz olib ketishdi va Nabonidus qochib ketdi. 16 -kuni Ugbaru (Gobryas) Midiya hokimi jang qilmasdan, Kir qo'shini bilan Bobilga kirdi va u erda Nabonid o'z izdoshlari bilan asirga olindi. Bu vaqtda E-saggil va bu erdagi ibodatxonalar yopilganga o'xshaydi, ehtimol Nabonidus izdoshlarining u erga panoh topishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun yoki fitna uyushtiruvchilarning 3-martda (oktyabr) chiqishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun Kir kirgan. Bobil. “Kirusga tinchlik taklif qilib, uning oldiga to'plangan olomon, Bobil tinchligiga buyruq bering. Hamma narsa. , ziyoratgohlariga qaytarildi. 11 -martga o'tar kechasi Ugbaru (Bobilning bir qismi) ga qarshi chiqdi va shohning o'g'li vafot etdi va Adarning 27 -kunidan Nisonning 3 -kunigacha motam tutildi (olti kun). Matnda shoh yoki shohning o'g'li haqida gapiriladimi, degan shubha bor, lekin Nabonidus Karmaniyaga surgun qilinganligi haqidagi ma'lumotga ko'ra, Belshazzarning o'limi tunda sodir bo'lgan ko'rinadi. is here referred to. The day after the completion of the mourning (the 4th of Nisan), Cambyses, son of Cyrus, performed ceremonies in the temple E-nig-had-kalamma, probably in connection with the new year’s festival, for which Cyrus had probably timed his arrival at Babylon. According to Herodotus (i.191), Babylon’ was taken during a festival, agreeing with Dan. 5:1 ff.

The other inscription of Cyrus, discovered by Mr. H. Rassam at Babylon, is a kind of proclamation justifying his seizure of the crown. He states that the gods (of the various cities of Babylonia) forsook their dwellings in anger that he (Nabonidus) had made them enter within Su-anna (Babylon). Merodach, the chief divinity of Babylon, sought also a just king, the desire of his heart, whose hand he might hold–Cyrus, king of Ansan, he called his title–to all the kingdoms together (his) name was proclaimed.

The glory of Cyrus’ conquests probably appealed to the Babylonians, for Cyrus next states that Merodach placed the whole of the troops of Qutu (Media) under his feet, and the whole of the troops of the Manda (barbarians and mercenaries). He also caused his hands to hold the people of the dark head (Asiatics, including the Babylonians)–in righteousness and justice he cared for them. He commanded that he should go to his city Babylon and walked by his side like a friend and a companion–without fighting and battle Merodach caused him to enter Su-anna. By his high command, the kings of every region from the upper sea to the lower sea (the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf), the kings of the Amorites, and the dwellers in tents, brought their valuable tribute and kissed his feet within Su-anna (Babylon). From Nineveh(?), the city Assur, Susa, Agade, the land of Esnunnak, Zamban, Me-Turnu, and Deru, to the borders of Media, the gods inhabiting them were returned to their shrines, and all the people were collected and sent back to their dwellings. He finishes by soliciting the prayers of the gods to Bel and Nebo for length of days and happiness, asking them also to appeal to Merodach on behalf of Cyrus “his worshipper,” and his son Cambyses.

Merrill F. Unger and Howard F. Vos,

Inscriptions. The famous cylinder of Cyrus found by Hormuzd Rassam in the nineteenth century is in remarkable agreement with the royal edict as set forth in the Bible. “From … Ashur and Susa, Agade, Ashnunnak, Zamban, Meturnu, Deri, with the territory of the land of Gutium, the cities on the other side of the Tigris, whose sites were of ancient found—the gods, who dwell in them, I brought back to their places and caused them to dwell in a habitation for all time. All their inhabitants I collected and restored them to their dwelling places … may all the gods whom I brought into their cities pray daily before Bel and Nabu for long life for me” (R. W. Rogers, Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament [1912], p. 383). This royal edict shows that Cyrus reversed the inhumane policy of displacing whole populations, as practiced by Assyrian and Babylonian conquerors. Thus his clemency and religious toleration with regard to the Jewish captives are readily understood. Further, it is clear how the Hebrew prophet sang of Cyrus as the deliverer whom Jehovah would raise up (Isa. 45:1–4). Although the Hebrew prophet spoke of the great conqueror as anointed by the Lord for the particular task of restoring the Jewish captives, Cyrus claimed to be commissioned by the god Marduk. The famous inscription of the victor, preserved on a clay cylinder, contains the amazing story of triumphs of one who plainly saw himself as a man of destiny and gives background to the prophetic message of the Hebrew seer. “Marduk … sought a righteous prince, after his own heart, whom he took by the hand, Cyrus, king of Anshan, he called by name, to lordship over the whole world he appointed him … to his city Babylon he caused him to go … his numerous troops in number unknown, like the water of a river, marched armed at his side. Without battle and conflict he permitted him to enter Babylon. He spared his city Babylon a calamity. Nabunaid, the king, who did not fear him, he delivered into his hand” (Rogers, op. cit., p. 381). [1]

It was probably between the defeat of Astyages and the capture of Babylon that Cyrus defeated Croesus and conquered Lydia. After preparing to attack the Greek cities of Asia Minor, he returned to Ecbatana, taking Croesus with him. The states which had formed the Lydian empire, however, at once revolted, and had again to be reduced to submission, this time by Harpagus, his faithful general, after a determined resistance. It was at this period that Cyrus subdued the nations of Upper Asia, his next objective being Babylonia (section 9 and the two preceding paragraphs). In this connection it is noteworthy that, in the Babylonian official account, there is no mention of his engineering works preparatory to the taking of Babylon–the turning of the waters of the Gyndes into a number of channels in order to cross (Herod. i.189) the siege of Babylon, long and difficult, and the final capture of the city by changing the course of the Euphrates, enabling his army to enter by the bed of the river’ (Herodotus i.190-91). There may be some foundation for this statement, but if so, the king did not boast of it–perhaps because it did not entail any real labor, for the irrigation works already in existence may have been nearly sufficient for the purpose. It seems likely that the conquest of Babylon opened the way for other military exploits. Herodotus states that he next attacked the Massagetae, who were located beyond the Araxes.

One-third of their army was defeated, and the son of Tomyris, the queen, captured by a stratagem but on being freed from his bonds, he committed suicide. In another exceedingly fierce battle which followed, the Persian army was destroyed, and Cyrus himself brought his life to an end there, after a reign of 29 years. (He had ruled over Media for 11, and over Babylonia (and Assyria) for 9 years.) According to the Babylonian contract-tablets, Cambyses, his son, was associated with him on the throne during the first portion of his 1st year of rule in Babylon.

According to Ctesias, Cyrus made war with the Bactrians and the Sacae, but was taken prisoner by the latter, and was afterward ransomed. He died from a wound received in battle with the Berbices. Diodorus agrees, in the main, with Herodotus, but relates that Cyrus was captured by the Scythian queen (apparently Tomyris), who crucified or impaled him.

It is strange that, in the case of such a celebrated ruler as Cyrus, nothing certain is known as to the manner of his death. The accounts which have come down to us seem to make it certain that he was killed in battle with some enemy, but the statements concerning his end are conflicting. This absence of any account of his death from a trustworthy source implies that Herodotus is right in indicating a terrible disaster to the Persian arms, and it is therefore probable that he fell on the field of battle–perhaps in conflict with the Massagetae, as Herodotus states. Supposing that only a few of the Persian army escaped, it may be that not one of those who saw him fall lived to tell the tale, and the world was dependent on the more or less trustworthy statements which the Massagetae made.

That he was considered to be a personage of noble character is clear from all that has come down to us concerning him, the most noteworthy being Xenophon’s Cyropedia and Institution of Cyrus. The Babylonian inscriptions do not reproduce Babylonian opinion, but the fact that on the occasion of the siege of Babylon the people trusted to his honor and came forth asking peace for the city (apparently with every confidence that their request would be granted) and that the Babylonians, as a whole, were contented under his rule, may be regarded as tacit confirmation. Nabonidus, before the invasion of his territory by the Persian forces, was evidently well disposed toward him, and looked upon him, as we have seen, as “the young servant of Merodach,” the patron deity of Babylon.

It is not altogether clear, however, why the Babylonians submitted to him with so little resistance–their inscriptions contain no indication that they had a real reason to be dissatisfied with the rule of Nabonidus–he seems to have been simply regarded as somewhat unorthodox in his worship of the gods but could they expect an alien, of a different religion, to be better in that respect? Dissatisfaction on the part of the Babylonian priesthood was undoubtedly at the bottom of their discontent, however, and may be held to supply a sufficient reason, though it does not redound to the credit of Babylonian patriotism. It has been said that the success of Cyrus was in part due to the aid given him by the Jews, who, recognizing him as a monotheist like themselves, gave him more than mere sympathy but it is probable that he could never have conquered Babylonia had not the priests, as indicated by their own records, spread discontent among the people. It is doubtful whether we may attribute a higher motive to the priesthood, though that is not altogether impossible. The inner teaching of the Babylonian polytheistic faith was, as is now well known, monotheistic, and there may have been, among the priests, a desire to have a ruler holding that to be the true faith, and also not so inclined as Nabonidus to run counter to the people’s (and the priests’) prejudices. Jewish influence would, in some measure, account for this.

If the Jews thought that they would be more sympathetically treated under Cyrus’ rule, they were not disappointed. It was he who gave orders for the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem (2Ch 36:23 Ezra 1:2 5:13 6:3), restored the vessels of the House of Jehovah which Nebuchadnezzar had taken away (Ezra 1:7), and provided funds to bring cedar trees from Lebanon (Ezra 3:7). But he also restored the temples of the Babylonians and brought back the images of the gods to their shrines. Nevertheless, the Jews evidently felt that the favors he granted them showed sympathy for them, and this it probably was which caused Isaiah (Isa. 44:28 compare Rom. 4:17) to see in him a “shepherd” of Jehovah, and an anointed king (Messiah, to Christo mou, Isa. 45:1, 2, 5)–a title suggesting to later writers that he was a type of Christ.

God Initiates His Redemptive Program through Cyrus (44:24–45:25). Identifying Himself as the sovereign Creator, who alone controls the events of history, the Lord announced that He would use Cyrus the Persian to restore His people to the land and rebuild the ruined cities. A commissioning account follows, in which the Lord promised Cyrus military success in order that he, and eventually the whole world, might recognize the incomparability of Israel’s God. The mention of Cyrus by name is startling since this ruler did not come on the scene until the sixth century b.c., over a hundred years after Isaiah died. However, such a precise prediction is certainly consistent with the theme of God’s ability to predict and fulfill (see 44:26).

Though God had great plans for His exiled people, some grumbled about their condition and questioned God’s ways. The Lord reminded such individuals that they had no right to question their Creator’s sovereign decisions. To do so would be as absurd as a piece of pottery criticizing the potter who forms it.

The Lord reiterated His plan to use Cyrus as His instrument of redemption. Israel would return from Babylon and rebuild Jerusalem. Foreigners would recognize Israel’s privileged position and the incomparability of Israel’s God.

Once more declaring His sovereignty and superiority to the pagan gods, the Lord exhorted all nations to turn to Him for salvation. It is wise to submit to God now, for He has issued an unchangeable decree that all will someday bow before Him and acknowledge His sovereignty.

Exhorting Israel in Light of Babylon’s Fall (46:1–48:22). Here announcements of Babylon’s fall are coupled with exhortations to the exiles.

Babylon’s idols would be carried away into captivity, unable to rescue themselves, let alone their worshipers. These useless idols were stationary and a burden to the animals that carried them. In contrast, God had always been active in Israel’s history and had, as it were, carried His people. He urged those exiles who remained rebellious in spirit to recall His past deeds and to recognize His sovereign hand at work in the career of Cyrus. For those who were willing to trust His promises, a new era was approaching. [2]

From Persia we do not get any help as to his character, nor as to the estimation in which he was held. His only inscription extant is above his idealized bas-relief at Murghab, where he simply writes: “I am Cyrus, the Achaemenian.” The stone shows Cyrus standing, looking to the right, draped in a fringed garment resembling those worn by the ancient Babylonians, reaching to the feet. His hair is combed back in the Persian style, and upon his head is an elaborate Egyptian crown, two horns extending to front and back, with a uraeus serpent rising from each end, and between the serpents three vase-like objects, with discs at their bases and summits, and serrated leaves between. There is no doubt that this crown is symbolical of his dominion over Egypt, the three vase-like objects being modifications of the triple helmet-crown of the Egyptian deities. The king is represented as four-winged in the Assyro-Babylonian style, probably as a claim to divinity in their hierarchy as well as to dominion in the lands of Merodach and Assur. In his right hand, which is raised to the level of his shoulder, he holds a kind of scepter seemingly terminating in a bird’s head–in all probability also a symbol of Babylonian dominion, though the emblem of the Babylonian cities of the South was most commonly a bird with wings displayed.

Merrill F. Unger and Howard F. Vos,

Conquests. Cyrus II extended his conquests with lightninglike rapidity, defeating Croesus, king of Lydia c. 546 B.C. Babylon fell to him in 539 B.C. Thus he laid the foundations for the vast Persian Empire under whose dominion Judea was to remain a province for the next two centuries. Cyrus established his capital at Pasargadae in the land of Parsa. On a ruined palace there the repeated inscription can still be read, “I, Cyrus, the king, the Achaemenid.” From this palace comes the earliest extant Persian relief, a four-winged genius, perhaps representing the deified Cyrus.

Decree. This edict recorded in 2 Chron. 36:22–23 and Ezra 1:2–3 gave permission to the Hebrew captives to go back to Palestine to rebuild their Temple. “Thus says Cyrus king of Persia, ‘The Lord, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and He has appointed me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whosoever there is among you of all His people, may his God be with him! Let him go up to Jerusalem … and rebuild the house of the Lord.’”

End. Cyrus was slain in battle 530 b.c. and buried in a still extant tomb at Pasargadae. In the small burial chamber a golden sarcophagus received Cyrus’s body. Plutarch (a.d. 90) says the tomb bore this inscription: “O man, whosoever thou art and whencesoever thou comest, for I know that thou wilt come, I am Cyrus and I won for the Persians their empire. Do not, therefore, begrudge me this little earth which covers my body.” [3]

[1] Merrill F. Unger and Howard F. Vos, “Cyrus,” ed. R.K. Harrison, The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (Chicago: Moody Press, 1988).

[2] Robert B. Chisholm, “The Major Prophets,” in Holman Concise Bible Commentary, ed. David S. Dockery (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998), 284–285.


Military ability and Statesman

Cyrus had immense military abilities and he was very clever in commanding and conducting wars. But that was only one side facet of this great man. Great trait of Cyrus was the gentle character of his rule. He was very tolerant of local religions and local customs, and he was disinclined to the extreme brutality and cruelty, which characterized so many other conquerors.

Tactic of war of Cyrus is demonstrated in his war with the Lydian king Croesus.


Achievements of Cyrus the Great

Military Conquest

Cyrus took over the leadership of the Persian Tribes after the death of his father Anshan and he ruled as a vassal king for the Medians who controlled the region. Cyrus founded the Achaemenid Empire and even as a subordinate to the Medians, he had ambitions to gain power of the entire region.

The Achaemenian Dynasty was the first Empire of the world and Sorat asserts that this was the largest Empire of the old-Fashioned world and its length spanned from Anatolia from Egypt across western Asia to northern India and center Asia (1). The Achaemenian Empire eventually conquered Egypt and became the most dominate dynasty in the world.

When he took power from his Father, Cyrus was a subject of the Median Empire who lorded over the Persians. While his predecessors had been content to pay tribute to the Medians, Cyrus had greater ambitions. He therefore undertook a revolt that resulted in the defeat of the Medians and a new kingdom that combined the Median and Persians was established. Cyrus was the King of this new Empire but he chose to retain the title of “King of Persia”.

Despite having considerable territorial extent and duration, the Persian Empire did not have nearly as great an impact on history as did such longer-lived empires as the Roman, British, or Chinese empires. However, one should consider that the great accomplishments made by the Persians could never have been achieved without Cyrus’s influence.

A century before the rule of Cyrus no one would have suspected that within a century the entire ancient world would be under the rule of a previously obscure tribe from southwest Iran. In retrospective, historians can appreciate the fact that the rise of Persia into an Empire with worldwide reach could not be attributed to preexisting social or economic factors. It is highly unlikely that Persia would have risen to the great heights it did over time. Therefore, the great military ambitions of Cyrus actually altered the course of history.

Cyrus was an expansionist to the end and history records that he died in a campaign to defend and expand the Northeastern borders of his Empire. After his death while doing battle against the Massagetea, Cyrus was succeeded by his son Cambyses II whose rule was short.

Treatment of Subjects

While the military might of Cyrus was unquestionable, this king is best remembered for his extraordinary patience kindly attitude towards those he defeated. Cyrus had great respect for the local practices of the people he conquered and he sought to ensure that local customs were propagated.

When he defeated a province through military means, Cyrus appointed a governor to represent him there. However, he ensured that the management of each province was the responsibility of a satrap who was a local ruler. The satrap knew the cultural and religious views of the conquered and hence made sure that they were respected even as the people became subject to the Persians.

Cyrus in his mercy is also reputed to have abolished forced labor. This was especially the case after his conquest of Babylon which was well known for making slaves from the conquered people. When Babylon invaded and took over the Jewish land in 586, they forced the Jews to go to Babylon where they lived as captives. History records that after conquering Babylon, Cyrus gave the Jewish slaves permission to return to their homeland (Sorat 1).

This was after decades of living as captives in Babylon. If it was not for the mercy exhibited by Cyrus the Great, there is a high possibility that the Jewish people would never have returned to their homeland. While there were some obvious political motivations behind Cyrus’ mercy and generosity, it is undisputed that he was one of the most humane rulers of his time. Sorat notes that even among the Greeks who regarded Cyrus as a big threat to their independence, he was hailed as a great and just ruler and the people admired him.

For all his military ambitions, Cyrus did not have a liking for extreme brutality and cruelty which was the hallmark of other conquests of the time. For example, the Babylonians were renowned for slaughtering entire villages and the made a habit of taking people into exile to avoid rebellions rising against them by the conquered people.

Cyrus took a different approach and treated his subjects with dignity and mercy. Sorat notes that by engaging in a policy of generosity as opposed to repression which was common among many conquerors, Cyrus gained the respect and allegiance of the conquered subjects (1).

The legendary “cylinder of Cyrus the Great” which was discovered by archaeologies at a site in Babylon contains detailed accounts of how Cyrus treated his conquered subjects in a human manner and let them continue with their local customers as long as they paid him allegiance. Sorat declares that Cyrus the great was the most merciful ruler of his times (1). His Empire was characterized by showing charity to the conquered states which in turn made Cyrus’ kingdom greater.


Yoshlik

Little is known about Cyrus&rsquo early life his date of birth ranges anywhere from 600 to 580 BC depending on the account you read. There is a legend about Cyrus&rsquo early years attributed to the historian Herodotus. Apparently, soon after Cyrus&rsquo birth, his grandfather, the King of the Median Empire, Astyages, had a dream.

Uning magi interpreted it as a sign that Cyrus would eventually usurp him. Astyages wasted no time in telling his steward to murder the boy, but instead of following orders, the steward asked a herdsman to do it. The herdsman decided to hide the boy and raise him as his own son. After ten years, Cyrus&rsquo behavior was clearly not like that of an ordinary boy, so the suspicious king questioned the herdsman and found out the truth. He tricked the unfortunate man into eating his own son&rsquos flesh but allowed Cyrus to return to his parents.

Bust of Cyrus the Great. Classical Wisdom Weekly


For Cyrus specifically, the closest to a contemporary image I could find is this bas-relief found at Pasargadae. I think the best we can really draw from it is that he most likely had a beard. There isn't really any other racially identifying characteristics, and its monochrome so you can't really guess at the hair or skin color that is being portrayed.

As for the ancient Iranians, our first record of them moving into their ancestral homeland is around 800 BC. At that point they likely physically resembled other early Indo-Europeans. The question is what that was.

It is surprisingly difficult to find references to studies of physical appearance outside of sketchy sites pushing racial agendas. What I did dig up tended to agree that skin and hair color appears to have undergone a surprising amount of selection pressure, meaning that these would be among the absolute first features to evolve to match what works best at the latitude a people are living. So skin color is actually about the worst thing to look at to ascertain relations between peoples.

The best I was able to dig up was this Science story. I could be misinterpreting, but it appears to be saying that the PIE people who moved into Europe carried multiple light-skin traits, one of which nearly disappeared in central Europe, but later came back into prominence amongst those that proceeded into northern Europe. The PIE people also appeared to have a tendency to be a bit taller.

Exactly how fast this process evolves I'm not sure. However, Cyrus was only about 2 centuries removed from the Iranian descent into their homeland, so I'd think it fairly likely he was a bit fairer than your typical human being living in the subtropics. But we really don't know.


Cyrus II, better known as Cyrus the Great, was a Persian ruler who established the official Persian Empire. Here is a short backstory:

The Assyrian Empire fell in 612 BC and was split in half between the Babylonians and the Medes. Achaemenes was the first ruler of what later became Persia. Followed by Teispes, Cyrus the first, and Cambyses the first. According to Herodotus (a Greek Historian), Cambyses had a dream and then wanted to prevent his son from taking the throne. Cyrus II survived, however, and was later in life recognized by his grandfather, the king of Media and took over the throne in 559 BC.

At first, Cyrus submitted to the Medes, who governed most of the small kingdoms. But in 553 BC, he led a revolt against Media and captured it’s capital, Ecbatana. The Median Empire was ended in 549 BC. Cyrus now claimed lordship over all the Median and Persian kingdom . After Cyrus the Great conquered the Lydians, he occupied all of Asia Minor. The conquests of Lydia and Asia Minor were completed in 542 BC.

Cyrus Declaration Stamp

Cyrus the Great is also mentioned in the Bible. In 538 BC, he issued a decree that the Jews could return back to their homeland. This event was very important to the Jews they even had “Cyrus Declaration Stamps” in 2015!

Bu Achaemenid Empire, as it is called, was the largest single empire the world had seen to this point, and the Dynasty lasted for 200 years until Alexander the Great conquered it.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Томирис. Tomiris 2020. Драма, Исторический (Yanvar 2022).