Ma `lumot

Etrusk bronza haykali


Etrusklar Villanovan davriga (miloddan avvalgi 1100-750 yillar) bronzadan yasalgan buyumlar ishlab chiqarishgan va materialni har xil buyumlar uchun ishlatishgan, lekin bu ularning haykallari butun dunyodagi muzeylarning diqqatga sazovor joylariga aylangan. Bronza qadim zamonlardan buyon juda kerakli material bo'lib, uni qayta ishlatish uchun osonlikcha eritib yuborilgan, shuning uchun Arezzo kimyosi va Todining Marsi kabi ajoyib asarlar bugungi kungacha Italiyaning birinchi buyuk tsivilizatsiyasining ajoyib san'ati haqida guvohlik berish uchun saqlanib qolgan.

Ishlab chiqarish

Etruriya boy metallarga, ayniqsa mis, temir, qo'rg'oshin va kumushga ega bo'lish baxtiga muyassar bo'lgan. Dastlabki etrusklar buni yaxshi ishlatgan va bronzadan asboblar, qurol -yarog ', zirh, tanga, zargarlik buyumlari, qo'l foniylari, yog' lampalari, tutatqilar, ko'zgular, shtativlar, kundalik idishlar va idishlar, qozonlar kabi turli xil tovarlarni ishlab chiqarishda foydalanilgan. , ot bitlari, sandiqlar va hatto aravalar. Bronza bolg'acha, kesilgan, qoliplar yoki yo'qolgan mum texnikasi yordamida quyilgan, bo'rttirma, o'yilgan va perchin qilingan.

Miloddan avvalgi VIII asr o'rtalaridan boshlab, Etrusk rassomlari Yunon ko'chmanchilari (ayniqsa, evoeliklar) va Finikiya, Sardiniya, Misr, Markaziy Evropa va Bolqondan kelgan savdogarlar bilan muloqot qilishdan foyda olishgan. Bu metallga ishlov berish texnologiyasini takomillashtirish va badiiy g'oyalarning yangi turini olib keldi.

Ko'p Etrusk shaharlarida bronza asarlar ishlab chiqarishga ixtisoslashgan ustaxonalar tashkil etilgan bo'lib, ular orasida Akvarkossa, Cerveteri, Chiusi, Populoniya, Tarkiniya, Vulci, Volsiniy va Volterra bor edi. Ishlab chiqarish ko'lami haqida tushuncha berish uchun, rimliklar miloddan avvalgi 264 yilda Volsiniyga (zamonaviy Orvieto) hujum qilib, ularni tanga uchun eritib, 2000 dan ortiq bronza haykallarni talon -taroj qilishgan.

Haykalchalar

Bronzadan yasalgan haykalchalar, ko'pincha kichik tosh asosli, ma'badlarda va boshqa muqaddas qadamjolarda qurbonlik qilishning keng tarqalgan shakli edi. Ba'zilar, Arretium Fonte Veneziana topilganlar kabi, dastlab oltin barglari bilan qoplangan. Miloddan avvalgi 6-asrda Vulci shahridagi Isis maqbarasidagi qushni ushlab turgan ayol ma'budaning zarb qilingan va bronza tasviri. Uning bo'yi 34 sm, dastlab ko'zlari inlaid va oltin folga bilan qoplangan qismlari bor edi. Bu rasm hozirda London Britaniya muzeyida.

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Ko'pchilik haykalchalar uzun xiton libosli ayollar, yunon kabi yalang'och erkaklardir kouroi, qurolli jangchilar va yalang'och yoshlar. Ba'zida xudolar, ayniqsa Gerkules taqdim etilgan. Vidjetli haykalchalarning odatiy pozitsiyasi - bitta qo'lini ko'tarish (ehtimol apellyatsiya) va ob'ektni ushlab turish - odatda anor, gullar yoki aylana shaklidagi taom (ehtimol pirojnoe yoki pishloq). Kichikroq bronza asarlarining namunalariga miloddan avvalgi 6-asrda "Taklif qiluvchining bronza haykalchasi maqbarasi" dan qurbonlik keltirgan odamning haykalchasi kiradi.Tomba del Bronzetto di Taklif) Populoniyada. Yana bir yaxshi ish-miloddan avvalgi 4-asrda Arretiydan kelgan ikkita ho'kiz va shudgor haykalchasi.

Volterra juda baland va ingichka boshli, ingichka odam figuralaridan ajralib turadigan bronzadan yasalgan haykalchalarni ishlab chiqarishi bilan mashhur edi. Ular, ehtimol, bronzadan yasalgan yoki yog'ochdan o'yilgan ancha qadimgi raqamlarning qoldig'i bo'lib, zamonaviy san'at haykaltaroshligini eslatadi. Eng mashhur misol miloddan avvalgi III asrga to'g'ri keladi va nomi bilan mashhur Ombra della Sera ("Kechki soya"). Bu balandligi 57 sm bo'lgan, yalang'och bolaning diqqatini qaratadi va tabassum bilan ishora qiladi. Rasm Volterra shahridagi Etrusko Guarnachchi muzeyida namoyish etilgan.

Estetika ustidan realizm

Etrusk san'at asarlari O'rta er dengizi bo'ylab uzoqqa eksport qilindi va ularning ko'plari Olimpiya, Delfi va Dodona kabi muqaddas joylardan topilgan. Pliniy oqsoqol kabi qadimgi yozuvchilar etrusklarni bronza haykali uchun maqtashgan, xususan:

Biz Toskana Apollonini ko'ramiz, Avgust ma'badi kutubxonasida, barmoqdan ellik fut balandlikda; va bu metallning sifatiga ko'ra ko'proq e'tiborga loyiqmi yoki ishning go'zalligi uchunmi, bu savol. (Keller, 232)

Tarixchi V. Keller Etrusk bronza haykaltaroshligining boshqa zamonaviy madaniyatdagi asarlari bilan solishtirganda nimasi bilan ajralib turishini tushuntiradi:

Tashqi narsalarga e'tibor qaratish, shaklning haqiqiy bo'lmagan, idealizatsiyalangan kamolotiga intilish Etrusk usuli emas edi. Ularning dinamik, hayotiy asarlari hayot bilan bog'liq. Hayvonlarning yoki odamlarning figuralari, ular muntazam, muvozanatli yoki ideal emas edi. Etrusk rassomlari, birinchi navbatda, o'z mavzusining kvintessensiyasini, uning individual xususiyatlarini ochib berishga intilishgan. Ular ichki harakatlantiruvchi kuchni, ongsiz chuqurliklarni ifoda etishga harakat qilishdi ... Etrusk rassomlari insonning shaxsiyatini, uning asosiy asosiy yadrosini tushunishga va estetikadan qat'i nazar, buni real tarzda etkazishga harakat qilishdi. Aynan ularning asarlari Rim portretining haqiqiy realistik san'atini ilhomlantirgan. (232-3)

Etrusk durdonalari

Arezzo kimera

Ximera-yunon mifologiyasidan olov bilan nafas oladigan yirtqich hayvon, uning boshi sherning boshi, ilonning dumi va echkining boshi orqa tomondan chiqib turadi. Yo'qotilgan mum texnologiyasi yordamida bronzadan yasalgan haykalning balandligi 78,5 sm, uzunligi 129 sm. Miloddan avvalgi V yoki IV asrlarga to'g'ri keladi. Quyruq miloddan avvalgi 18 -asrda saqlanib qolgan parchaga asoslangan qayta tiklash natijasidir. Bu, ehtimol, yirtqich hayvonni o'ldirgan qahramon Bellerofon va uning qanotli oti Pegas bilan birga bo'laklardan iborat edi. Bir oyog'ida shunday yozuv bor tinscvil yoki "Kalayga sovg'a", bu Etrusk panteonining boshi Tin (aka Tinia) uchun qurbonlik qurbonligi ekanligini bildiradi. Mo''jizaviy tarzda haykal miloddan avvalgi 1553 yilda Toskana Buyuk Gertsogi Cosimo de 'Medici tomonidan Arezzoda yangi istehkomlar ko'tarilganda, chuqurdan topilgan. Hozirda u Florensiya arxeologik muzeyida saqlanmoqda.

Todi Mars

Miloddan avvalgi 5-asr oxiri yoki 4-asr boshlariga to'g'ri keladigan, hayratlanarli darajada baland bo'yli figurada kuara kiyiladi va bir marta nayzasi bor edi. Boshqa tomondan, u, ehtimol, yolg'onchi edi. Bu rasm 142 sm balandlikda va Umbrian yozuvida (ahal trutit donum dada), uni kelt Ahal Trutitis bag'ishlaganini ochib beradi. U Arretiumda qilingan deb taxmin qilinadi, garchi u Todi yaqinida topilgan bo'lsa ham, u erda yashin urganidan keyin tosh bilan qoplangan xandaqqa ko'milgan. Endi u Rimdagi Vatikan muzeylarida namoyish etiladi.

Arezzo Minerva

Yunon ma'budasi Afina va Rim xudosi Minervaga tenglashtirilgan Etrusk ma'budasi Menervaning bu tasviri miloddan avvalgi III -I asrlarda qilingan. Miloddan avvalgi 1541 yilda Areztsodagi quduqdan topilgan, hozirda Florensiya arxeologik muzeyida namoyish etilmoqda.

"Brutus" soqolli odam portreti

Bu portret bosh (zamonaviy byustga o'rnatilgan) uzoq vaqtdan beri Rimning birinchi konsuli Brutus bilan aniqlangan, ammo bu uyushma uchun hech qanday dalil yo'q. San'atshunoslarning ko'pchiligi stilistik asosda bu eramizdan avvalgi 300 -yillardagi etrusk asari ekanligiga qo'shiladilar. Endi u Rim Kapitolin muzeylarida namoyish etiladi.

Arringator (notiq)

Bu hayotiy o'lcham miloddan avvalgi I asrning birinchi yarmida qilingan va xuddi nutq qilayotgandek, qo'lini cho'zgan kalta yengli tunka va toga kiygan tik turgan erkak figurani ifodalaydi. Yozuv shuni ko'rsatadiki, u bitta Aule Meteli nomidan taklif qilingan (u kim bo'lishi mumkin yoki bo'lmasligi mumkin). Haykal miloddan avvalgi 1566 yilda Trasimen ko'li yaqinida topilgan va hozirda Florensiya arxeologik muzeyida saqlanmoqda.

E'tibor bering: Rim Kapitolin muzeylarida namoyish etilayotgan Kapitolin bo'ri deb nomlanuvchi haykal uzoq vaqtdan beri etrusklar haykali deb hisoblanar edi, lekin hozir miloddan avvalgi 11-12 asrlarga tegishli.


XV asrning buyuk TUSAN haykaltaroshlari V. Francesco Laurana, Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Andrea Riccio va Pisanello.

Florentsiyalik haykaltaroshlarning tekis, nozik va nozik uslubi quattrocento hech qachon ta'sirlanmagan. Ular ishonch bilan nozik edi. Bu jihat Frantsesko Laurana ismli Florentsiyalik emas, boshqa haykaltarosh Neapol saroyining malikalari uchun qilgan portretlarida yaqqol ko'rinib turibdi. Franchesko Laurana (taxminan 1430 - 1502 yil 12 martgacha) Dalmatian, Vranadan (hozirgi Zadar), va Neapol, Sitsiliya, Marsel va Avinyonda kosmopolit karerasini egallagan. Uning Aragon uyining neapolitan malikalari portretlari (Eleonora, Palermodagi Abatsellis Palazosida va Luvrda malika noma'lum malika byusti) ikkalasi ham eng yaxshi asarlar bo'lib, bunda rasmiy sintez mavhum ijod yo'lidan o'tadi.

Aragon Eleanorining byusti, marmar, Francesco Laurana, ca. 1468-1471 (Galleria Regionale della Sicilia, Palazzo Abatellis, Palermo). Francesco Laurana, shuningdek, ukasi Lusiano kabi me'mor, Urbino gersoglik saroyining quruvchisi, shuningdek, nafis va xushbichimlikning ajoyib haykaltaroshi bo'lgan. Alfonso V Neapoldagi sudiga Kastelnuovo tantanali kamarida ishlash uchun chaqirgan va u erda aragon malikalarining byustlarini yasagan. Bu maxsus byust dastlab Eleanor qabriga o'yilgan va Uyg'onish davri sitsiliya haykalining timsoli hisoblanadi. U ikonografik jihatdan "malika byusti" va "8221" ga o'xshaydi (Luvr, quyidagi rasmga qarang). Marmar malika byusti, Francesco Laurana, 1468 y. (Musuv du Luvr muzeyi, Parij). Bu byust mukammal kvadratni (44 x 44 sm) tashkil qiladi. O'tirgan shaxs noma'lumligicha qolsa -da, u odatda o'limdan keyin Aragon go'dak Eleanorining portreti bilan bog'liq bo'lib, uning dafn marosimi portreti asosida hozirda Palermodagi Nazionale della Sitsiliya galereyasida joylashgan.

Florentsiyalik dekorativlar o'z ishlarini nafaqat ohaktosh va marmarda, balki bronzada ham ijro etishgan, masalan Donatello va Verrokkio. Ulardan biri Antonio del Pollayuolo (1429/1433 yil 17 -yanvar - 1498 yil 4 -fevral) nomi bilan 1484 yilda akasi Pyero bilan birga haykaltarosh va rassom Innocent VIII va Sixtus IV sepulchral yodgorliklarini o'yish uchun Rimga ko'chib o'tgan. Pollayuolo o'ta sezgir rassom edi, biroz kasal edi. "Donatello" ning ba'zi asarlarida allaqachon paydo bo'lgan asabiylik Pollayuoloda og'irlashdi, uning birinchi mashg'uloti zardo'zlik edi, u katta yoshida kumush yengilligi bilan tug'ilgan. Baptist, 1367-1483 yillar. Rimga safaridan oldin o'yilgan bu qurbongoh Florensiyaning suvga cho'mish marosimiga mo'ljallangan edi.

Sixtus IV yodgorligi, bronza, Antonio del Pollaiuolo tomonidan, 1484-1493 (Sankt-Peter va Bazilikaning podval xazinasi, Vatikan). Bu Sixtus IV qabri Sixtusning jiyani kardinal Giuliano della Rovere (keyinchalik Papa Yuliy II) tomonidan qurilgan. Qabr XV asrning haykaltaroshlik yutuqlaridan biri bo'lib, Pollaioulo san'atiga xos figuralarning anatomik xususiyatlarida bo'rttirib ko'rsatishni aks ettiradi. Yodgorlikning tepasida Sixtus IV ning holatida yotgani tasvirlangan. Tiara va papa liboslarini kiygan va biroz pastroq bo'lgan Papaning o'tirgan qiyofasi atrofida ettita fazilat tasvirlangan (Xayriya, Umid, Ehtiyotkorlik, Qat'iylik, Imon, Temperament va Adolat). Qabrning konkav tagida grammatikani, ritorikani, arifmetikani, geometriyani, musiqani, rasmni, astronomiyani, falsafani va ilohiyotni ifodalovchi allegorik ayol figuralari tasvirlangan o'nta rölyef panellari bezatilgan bo'lib, rasm va ilohiyot qo'shilgan. raqamlar akantus pristavkalari bilan ajratilgan. Har bir rasmda eman daraxti bor (rovere” italyan tilida), Sixtus IV ning ramzi. Antonio del Pollaiuolo tomonidan, 1492-1498 yy.da bronza bilan ishlangan, Papa Innokent VIII maqbarasi (Sent-Piter va Bazilika, Vatikan). Antonio del Pollaiuolo ’ ning yakuniy komissiyasi Sixtus IV (oldingi rasmga qarang) va uning vorisi Innocent VIII (yuqoridagi rasm) ning papa qabrlari edi. Bu dafn marosimi dastlab sobiq Sankt -Petr Bazilikasida joylashgan va Pollaiuolo vafotidan sal oldin qurib bitkazilgan. Yodgorlik ikki qismdan iborat: uning qabri ustida yotgan Innokent VIII ning yotqizilgan tasviri va uning taxtda o'tirgan tasviri. Bu o'tirgan rasmda, duo papasi Masihning yonini teshib o'tgan nayzaning metall uchini ushlab turadi. Asrlar mobaynida Muqaddas Lansning qoldiqlari Konstantinopolda saqlanib qolgan. Biroq, 1492 yilda, o'limidan sal oldin, Papa Innokent VIII uni Usmonli sultoni Bayezid II sovg'asi sifatida oldi. O'tirgan Papaning qiyofasi to'rtta asosiy fazilatlarning relyeflari bilan o'ralgan. Yuqorida og'ir kornişni uchta ilohiy fazilatlari tasvirlangan lunette egallaydi (sadaqa mandorlaning ichiga joylashtirilgan). “Baptist hayotining sahnalari bo'lgan Florensiya suvga cho'mish qurboni: Tug'ilgan va#8221, oltin, Antonio del Pollaiuolo (Museo dell ’Opera del Duomo, Florensiya). Suvga cho'mdiruvchining tug'ilishini ifodalovchi bu relef qurbongohning chap tomonida joylashgan bo'lib, zamonaviy Florentsiya interyerining sodiq janr tasvirini beradi. Voqea xona ichida sodir bo'ladi, u erda to'shak o'rtasiga qo'yiladi. Deraza ostidagi orqa fonda, xizmatkor ichimliklar keltiradi, baptist bolasi esa hamshiralariga g'amxo'rlik qiladi. Bu orada, Bokira xonadoni bilan birga o'ng tomonga kiradi, bu rasm Botichellining "8220Primavera" va "8221" rasmidagi Flora obrazini eslatadi. Oldingi sahna bolani yuvishni ifodalaydi va uning tafsilotlari haqiqatdir, masalan, ayol chap qo'l bilan suvning haroratini his qiladi.

Ba'zi Pollaiuolo asarlarida, ayniqsa, uning kichik haykallarida ifoda muhim rol o'ynagan. Antonio del Pollayuolo, shuningdek, 15-asrda qadimgi Kapitolin-bo'ri haykaliga qo'shilgan yangi tug'ilgan chaqaloq egizaklari Romulus va Remusning haykalchalarini haykaltaroshlik qilganligi haqida ba'zi olimlar tomonidan yozilgan. Taxminan shu vaqtda Italiyaning markaziy va shimolidagi turli mintaqalardan kelgan turli xil tuskalik rassomlar yoki boshqalar kichik o'lchamdagi asarlarni modellashtirishni boshladilar va shu tariqa 15 -asr oxiri va 16 -asr boshlarida an'ana paydo bo'ldi. uning eng muhim vakili Paduan Andrea Briosko familiyali Riccio (taxminan 1470 - 1532 yy.) bo'lib, u birinchi bo'lib zargar sifatida o'qitilgan, keyinchalik Etrusk uslubida ishlangan mayda bronza figuralar, hayvonlar va yalang'ochlarning muallifi. U nusxa ko'chirmasdan, antik davr ruhini egallagan kichik bronzalarni yaratishda a'lo darajada ishlagan. Riccio Italiyaning Uyg'onish davridagi eng kichik bronzalar haykaltaroshi hisoblanadi.

Antonio del Pollayuolo tomonidan yaratilgan kichik haykallar. Chapda: Gerkules va Antey, bronza, 1470 -yillar, balandligi 45 sm (Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florensiya). Haykalda Gerkulesning klassik epizodi tasvirlangan, u gigant Antey bilan kurash olib borgan, u erning bir qismi erga tekkanida yengilmas edi, u erdan kuchini olardi. Shunday qilib, Gerakl uni kuchsizlanib vafot etguncha havoda ushlab turdi. Gerkules qo'llari Anteusning beliga qulflangan holda tasvirlangan bo'lib, gigantning jasadini yiqitgan. Bu bronza haykalchalarni antiqa bronzalarga o'xshash qilib tez -tez patinatsiya qilishgan. Bu qism Pollaiuolo anatomiya haqidagi bilimlarini (murdalarni ajratishdan o'rganilgan) va uning jismoniy va hissiy zo'ravonlikni namoyish etish qobiliyatini ko'rsatadi. Bu guruh rassomning hayoti davomida mashhur bo'lgan: Leonardo uni o'rgangan va Mikelanjelo bronzadan yasalgan to'qimalarni tasvirlaydigan varaqqa chizgan. O'ngda: Gerkules, taxminan. 1475 yil (Bode muzeyi, Berlin). Kichik bronzalar Andrea Riccio tomonidan. Yuqori chapda: Pan, taxminan. 1510-1520, balandligi 36 sm (Metropolitan san'at muzeyi, Nyu-York). Ushbu haykal bugungi kunda Rimdagi Kapitolin muzeylarida qadimiy marmar haykaldan yasalgan. Duccio ’ ning mijozlari klassik mifologiya bilan bog'liq mavzularni o'rgangan. Yuqori o'ng: Quvurlar bilan cho'pon Dafnis, 1520-1530 yillar orasida, balandligi 21,3 sm (Uolters san'at muzeyi, Baltimor. Merilend). Bu kichkina bronza o'zining tabiiyligi va lirizmi bilan ajralib turadi. Bu haykalcha Arcadia afsonaviy dunyosidan kelgan cho'ponni ifodalaydi, u erda satiralar, nimfalar, xudolar va odamlar bemalol birga yashagan. Unga Pan xudosi ichi bo'sh qamish naychasini chalishni o'rgatgan va cho'ponlik she'riyatining ixtirochisiga aylangan. Chap pastki: Rotshild chirog'i, taxminan. 1510-1520, 19 x 23 x 7 sm (Metropolitan san'at muzeyi, Nyu-York). Bu funktsional yog 'chiroq. Umuman olganda, chiroq xayoliy qadimiy kema yoki oshxona shaklini oladi. Chig'anoqlar, bukraniya bilan bezatilgan, arfa*, gulchambarlar va boshqa klassik dekorativ motiflar, har bir chiroqning tanasi ham frizlar bilan bezatilgan putti. Pastki o'ngda: Satir va Satyress, taxminan. 1510-1520 (Viktoriya va Albert muzeyi, London). Bu erda Riccio satirlarning shahvoniy tabiatini, balki ularning nozik munosabatlarini ham tasvirlaydi: Satir va Satyress sayoz asosda bir -biriga o'tirib, qo'llari bir -birining yelkalarida, o'ng oyog'i chap tomonida, Satir sherigining bo'yniga tegadi. barmoq uchlari bilan, bosh barmog'i iyagiga suyanib, lablari xuddi o'pmoqchi bo'lganidek qisilgan.

Tabiiyki, 15-asr o'rtalarida Florentsiyadagidek, antik davrning sarobini chinakam ishqiy ehtiros bilan his qilgan jamiyat o'zining barcha badiiy ko'rinishlarida qadimiy iz qoldirishga intilgan. Qadimgi san'atga taqlid qilish ishtiyoqi shu paytdan beri Toskanada yashagan italiyaliklar orasida shu qadar chuqur ildiz otgan va tabiiy holga aylanganki, hatto oddiy burjuaziya va oddiy shahar xalqining san'at turlarida ham buni sezishgan. Buni keramikada ko'rish mumkin, bunda valensiyalik buyumlarning ko'p miqdorda olib kelinishi natijasida oq rangli lak -lak texnikasini o'zlashtirish yaqqol namoyon bo'ldi, bu o'z -o'zini polikromli bezak bilan bezatadi. Ushbu uslub va oqlangan modellashtirish yordamida, laklangan va bo'yalgan terakotalar, odatda, idishlar yoki idish -tovoqlar bo'laklari yoki bag'ishlanish yoki shaxsiy maqsadlar uchun bezak qo'shimchalari bo'lgan, Uyg'onish davrining nozik sezgirligini aks ettiruvchi kichik durdona edi.

Italiyaning birinchi Uyg'onish davridagi qalay sirlangan sopol idishlar misoli. Chapda: Ko'k va oq vaza, eman barglari va itlar bezagi bilan, Florensiyada ishlab chiqarilgan. 1400-1450 (Nazionale del Bargello muzeyi, Florensiya). O'ngda: Sopol idishlar, qalay sirlangan Maiolica plastinka, XV asr boshlari, Italiya (Metropolitan san'at muzeyi, Nyu-York).

Antik davr shakllarini qayta tiklash istagining boshqa odatiy tomoni medal yasashga aylandi. Birinchi va eng mashhur medal sovrindori - rassom va haykaltarosh, Veronada tug'ilgan Antonio Pisano, Pisanello (taxminan 1395 - taxminan 1455), nozik rassom va hayvonlarning yuqori malakali tasvirchisi. U bu badiiy modaning ohangini o'rnatgan. Uning birinchi medali 1438 yilda Italiyaga kelgani xotirasiga bag'ishlangan Jon VIII Paleologning surati bilan qilingan medali edi. Bu medal san'atga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi va haykalga ham, rasmga ham ta'sir qildi. Keyinchalik Uyg'onish davri rassomlari Jonning Pisanello portretidan deyarli ekzotik yoki antiqa figuralarni aks ettirish uchun foydalanganlar. Buni "Masih bayrog'i" va "Haqiqiy xoch tarixi" da Arezzo freskalarida Jon obrazini ishlatgan Pyero della Francesca va Jon tasvirini ishlatgan Benozzo Gozsoli asarlarida ko'rish mumkin. Magi ibodatxonasi uchun freskalarida sehrgarlardan birini tasvirlash uchun namuna sifatida (pastdagi kichik rasmlarga qarang).

Imperator Jon VIII Paleolog medali (old-chap va teskari-o'ng), mis qotishmasi, Pisanello tomonidan, taxminan. Diametri 1438, diametri 10 sm. (Munzkabinett, Staatliche Museen, Berlin). Jon VIII Paleolog (1392-1448), Vizantiya imperatori, eski Rim imperiyasining oxirgi hukmdori. U Papa Evgeniy IV tomonidan Ferrara shahridagi kengashga taklif qilingan va u erda ko'p odamlar bilan kelgan. O'sha paytda Leonello d ’Este uchun Ferrara shahrida ishlagan Pisanello imperator atrofining ekzotik qiyofasiga qoyil qoldi, uning tafsilotlarini chizmalarda yozib, rasmlarda ishlatgan. Pisanelloga ushbu tarixiy tashrifga bag'ishlangan ob'ektni ishlab chiqarish topshirildi. Bu medal, Uyg'onish davrining birinchi portret medali, keyingi barcha medallarning turiga aylandi. Old tomonda (chapda) Pisanello Jon Paleologni qadimgi va o'rta asrlar misollaridan so'ng profilga joylashtirdi va yunon tilida "Rim imperatori va avtokrati Yuhanno, Paleolog" va portret - bu imperatorning shlyapasi: bu katta kiyim old tomondan tasvir maydonining yarmini egallaydi. Orqa tarafda (o'ngda) Paleolog yana profilda tasvirlangan, ot minib, yo'l chetidagi xochda, poydevor tepasida namoz o'qishni to'xtatgan. Uning orqasida, boshqa otga minilgan, orqa tomondan ko'rilgan va oldindan tasvirlangan varaq yoki skvayder. Medal ishlab chiqaruvchi sifatida lotincha va yunoncha Pisanello nomidagi yozuvlar (“ Rassom Pisano asari ”). Pisanelloning Jon Paleolog tasviri (oldingi rasmga qarang) san'atga kuchli ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Uning “exotika va#8221 xususiyatlari keyinchalik rassomlar tomonidan deyarli o'zgarmagan holda qayta ishlangan, shu jumladan Pyero della Francesca (Haqiqiy xoch tarixi va Areoszo freskalari, Masih markazining bayroqchasi), shuningdek Benozzo Gozsoli (Magi freskasining namoyishi) sehrgarlar ibodatxonasi-o'ngda).

Rim tangalaridan ilhomlanib, hukmdorlarning portretlari va teskari tomonidagi allegorik tasvirlar bilan Pisanello medallari shaxslar yoki voqealarni eslab, sovg'a va esdalik sifatida xizmat qilgan. Pisanello o'sha paytda tanga zarb qilish uslubini aniqladi. Umuman olganda, bronza diskning old tomonida u tasvirlangan qahramonning profil byustini tasvirlab, uni lotin afsonasi bilan birga olib kelgan va teskari tomonga ramz yoki alegoriyani qoldirgan. Uning eng mashhur medallari orasida u Janfranchesko Gonsaga, Mantua markasi, Filippo Mariya Viskonti uchun, Leonello d ’Este uchun va Neapolda Alagonso V Aragon uchun qilgan medallari bor.

Pisanelloning boshqa medallari. Yuqori chapda: Gianfrancesco Gonzaga medali, quyuq patinali mis qotishma va qorong'i mum qatlami, taxminan. 1445-1447, diametri 10 sm. (Metropolitan san'at muzeyi, Nyu -York). Janfranchesko Gonzaga (1395-1444) muvaffaqiyatli harbiy sardor va Mantuada Gonzaga boshqaruvini mustahkamlashda asosiy shaxs edi. Medalning old tomonida (chapda) marquess katta shlyapa kiygan holda ko'rinadi. Orqa tomonda (o'ngda) uning harbiy qo'mondonlik roli ko'rsatilgan, u erda dala zirhlarini kiyib, buyruq tayog'ini ushlab, kuchli ot minib o'tiradi. Orqa tomondan xuddi shunday kiyingan mitti mitti ko'rinadi. O'rta chap: Filippo medali Mariya Viskonti, bronza quyma, taxminan. Diametri 1441, 10 sm. (Kastello Sforzesko, Milan). Filippo Mariya Viskonti (1392-1447)-Milan gersogligi hukmdori. U o'ziga xos, ortiqcha vaznli va qiyinchilik bilan yurar edi. Medalning old tomonida Viskonti profil belgisida shlyapa kiygan. Orqa tomonda, musobaqada zirh kiygan va yengil nayzali ushlab turgan dashtli figura, uning sheriklari singari, maydonning qahramonlik muhitini uyg'otadi. Chap pastki: Leonello d ’Este medali, to'q jigarrang patina bilan sarg'ish mis qotishma, ca. 1441-1444, diametri 7 sm. (Metropolitan san'at muzeyi, Nyu -York). Leonello d ’Este (1407-1450) Ferrara va Dyuk Modena va Reggio Emiliya markalari edi. Zamonaviy manbalarga ko'ra, u jiddiy intellektual, ashaddiy musiqachi, shoir va faol san'at homiysi bo'lgan. 1441 yilda u Pisanelloni sudga olib keldi va undan kamida oltita medalni topshirdi. Har bir medalning old tomonida shahzoda va#8217s portreti, teskari tomonda juftlangan, ramziy ma'noga va klassik san'at va ta'limotga boy bo'lgan noaniq va murakkab tasvirga ega. Medalning teskari tomonida, zaytun novdalariga osilgan qurol-yarog'lar yon tomonda, uch yuzli bolaning qiziquvchan qiyofasi joylashgan bo'lib, u odatda ehtiyotkorlikning timsoli, o'tmishga nazar soladigan hukmdorning muhim atributi sifatida tushuntiriladi. , va kelajak. O'ngda: Neapol qiroli Aragon Alfonso medali, quyma bronza, 1449 yil (Viktoriya va Albert muzeyi, London). Pisanello Alfonso V Aragon uchun bir nechta esdalik portret medalini ishlab chiqardi. Orqa tomonda Alphonso -ning fazilatlarini hukmdor sifatida ifodalovchi, mayda yirtqich qushlar bilan o'ralgan ulug'vor burgut tasvirlangan. Bu tasvir lotincha yozuv bilan mustahkamlangan.

Boshqa medallar ham unchalik mashhur emas, shuningdek Donatello shogirdi bo'lgan Veronadan Pisanello yoki uning izdoshi Mateo de Pastiga tegishli. U Donatello ustaxonasida ko'p yillar ishlagan va 1466 yilda vafotidan keyin Donatello tugatilmagan asarlarini tugatgan. Keyinchalik, Bertoldo Lorenzo de Medici o'z bog'ida asos solgan rassom va haykaltaroshlarning norasmiy akademiyasi rahbari va o'qituvchisi bo'ldi. Shu bilan birga, Bertoldo u erdagi Rim qadimiy yodgorliklari saqlovchisi bo'lgan. Bertoldo yirik haykaltarosh bo'lmasa -da, o'z davrining eng taniqli haykaltaroshlari bu maktabda o'qishgan, ular orasida Mikelanjelo ham bor edi. Boshqa mashhur medal sohiblari Donatello shogirdi Bertoldo di Jovanni va Nikkolo Fiorentino edi.

Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta va uning oxirgi rafiqasi Isottaning medallari, Matteo de Pasti (Museo della città di Rimini, Italiya). Matteo de ’ Pasti (Veronada tug'ilgan) Leonello d ’Este va Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta asarlarini o'z ichiga olgan ko'plab qirollik komissiyalarida ishlagan. Matteo, shuningdek, me'mor Leon Battista Alberti bilan loyihani ishlab chiqish va qurishda hamkorlik qilgan Tempio Malatestiano. Italiya Uyg'onish davrining boshqa muhim medal sovrindori. Yuqori chapda: Mehmed II portret medali (old tomonda), bronza, Bertoldo di Jovanni, taxminan. Diametri 1480, 9,4 sm. (Milliy san'at galereyasi, Vashington). Mehmed II, odatda Mehmed Fathchi sifatida tanilgan, XV asr o'rtalaridan boshlab Usmonli sultoni bo'lgan. Yuqori o'ng: Pazzi kospirati medali (old tomonda), bronza, Bertoldo di Jovanni, 1478, diametri 6,4 sm. (Milliy san'at galereyasi, Vashington). Bu mashhur medal 1478 yildagi Patsi fitnasidan keyin Giuliano va Lorentso de Medichining xotirasiga bag'ishlangan. Büstü uzunlikdagi portret Brunelleschi va Florensiya Bazilikasining yuqori qurbongohini o'rab turgan vaqtinchalik yog'och xor tomonidan tasvirlangan, büstün ostidagi sahnada Lorentso o'z hujumchilaridan qochib, qochib ketayotgani tasvirlangan. Uning hikoyaviy mazmuni medalda misli ko'rilmagan. O'rta chap va o'ng: Jon Kendal medali (teskari va teskari), bronza, Nikolo Fiorentino, 1 480, 5,9 sm. (Metropolitan san'at muzeyi, Nyu -York). Pastki chap va o'ng: Medal Lorenzo de Medici, ‘il Magnifico ’, (old va teskari), bronza, Nikolko Fiorentino, ca. Diametri 1490, 9 sm. (Metropolitan san'at muzeyi, Nyu -York). Florentinlik zargarlar oilasida tug'ilgan Nikko Italiya Uyg'onish davrining etakchi portret medali sovrindorlari qatoriga kiradi. Yuqori relyefda ishlayotganda, u yanada jasur va aniqroq effektlarni yaratdi.

Harpi: Yunon va Rim mifologiyasida a arfa bo'ronli shamollarning yarim odam (odatda urg'ochi) va yarim qush timsolidir. Ular Homer she'rlarida aks ettirilgan.

Medal: (yoki medal). Kichkina ko'chma badiiy ob'ekt, odatda metalldan yasalgan, yupqa diskdan iborat bo'lib, uning dizayni har ikki tomonda. Ushbu dizaynlar, odatda, har qanday turdagi esdalik maqsadiga ega. Ularni kiyish, kiyimdan yoki taqinchoqlar sifatida osib qo'yish mo'ljallangan bo'lishi mumkin.


Arezzo ximerasi, etrusk bronza haykali (miloddan avvalgi 400 -yillar) - rasmli rasm

Oson kirish (EZA) hisobingiz sizning tashkilotingiz tarkibiga quyidagi maqsadlar uchun tarkibni yuklab olish imkonini beradi:

  • Sinovlar
  • Namunalar
  • Kompozitlar
  • Tartiblar
  • Qattiq kesmalar
  • Dastlabki tahrirlar

Bu Getty Images veb -saytidagi harakatsiz tasvirlar va videolarga standart onlayn kompozitsion litsenziyani bekor qiladi. EZA hisobi litsenziya emas. Loyihangizni EZA hisobingizdan yuklab olingan material bilan yakunlash uchun siz litsenziyani olishingiz kerak. Litsenziyasiz, boshqa foydalanish mumkin emas, masalan:

  • Fokus -guruh taqdimotlari
  • tashqi taqdimotlar
  • tashkilotingiz ichida tarqatiladigan yakuniy materiallar
  • sizning tashkilotingizdan tashqarida tarqatilgan har qanday materiallar
  • jamoatchilikka tarqatiladigan har qanday materiallar (reklama, marketing kabi)

To'plamlar doimiy ravishda yangilanib borayotganligi sababli, Getty Images har qanday mahsulot litsenziyalanish vaqtigacha mavjud bo'lishini kafolatlay olmaydi. Iltimos, Getty Images veb -saytidagi litsenziyalangan material bilan bog'liq har qanday cheklovlarni diqqat bilan o'rganib chiqing va agar sizda savol bo'lsa, Getty Images vakili bilan bog'laning. Sizning EZA hisobingiz bir yil davomida saqlanib qoladi. Getty Images vakili siz bilan yangilanishni muhokama qiladi.

Yuklab olish tugmachasini bosish orqali siz chiqmagan kontentdan foydalanish uchun javobgarlikni o'z zimmangizga olasiz (shu jumladan foydalanish uchun zarur bo'lgan ruxsatnomalarni olish) va har qanday cheklovlarga rioya qilishga rozilik bildirasiz.


Etrusklarning bronzadan yasalgan haykaltaroshlik ishlari. 3 dan 2 gacha - avant JC. Balandligi 11 sm.

Balandligi 11 sm, tayanchsiz va o'rnatilgani 16,5 santimetr.

Kelib chiqishi: Xususiy kollektsiya, C..C., Barselona, ​​Londonda 1960 - 1970 yillarda sotib olingan.

Vaziyat: ahvoli yaxshi, rasmlarga qarang.

Yosh, tik turgan erkakning, ehtimol, ruhoniyning baquvvat bronzali haykalchasi. U kiyim kiygan, chap yelkasi va qo'lini yopib qo'ygan keng mantiya, yalang'och ko'kragining ustiga, kestirib, o'ng tomoniga yiqilib, keyin oyoqlarini yopib olgan. Chlamylardan farqli o'laroq, bu kiyim pin yoki galstuk bilan ushlab turilmaydi. To'piqlari va oyoqlari ochilmagan, shuning uchun biz bu rasmda hech qanday poyafzal yo'qligini ko'ramiz.

Uning boshi diadem bilan bezatilgan, odatda nurli stefan deb ataladi va odatda chigirtka barglari yoki rezavorlar gulchambari sifatida talqin qilinadi.

Haykal yassilangan shaklga ega, poza va anatomiya, unga yunon-ellinistik uslub bevosita ta'sir ko'rsatgan. Sochlari uzun va to'lqinli, yuzi chiroyli ifodalangan.

Eslatmalar:
- Asar haqiqiyligini tasdiqlovchi hujjatni o'z ichiga oladi.
- Bu qism Ispaniya eksport litsenziyasini (Evropa Ittifoqi pasporti) o'z ichiga oladi.
- Ispaniya qonunchiligiga ko'ra, Evropa Ittifoqidan tashqarida yuborilgan buyumlar eksport solig'iga tortiladi va hisob -fakturaga xaridor hisobidan qo'shiladi. Bu eksport yig'imlari yakuniy auktsion bahosida belgilanadi va soliq stavkasi to'g'ridan -to'g'ri eksport qilinadigan tovarning umumiy qiymatiga nisbatan qo'llanilmaydi, aksincha unga bo'limlar bo'yicha har xil foizlar qo'llaniladi:
- 6000 evrogacha: 5%.
- 6.001 dan 60.000 evrogacha: 10%.
Ushbu eksport ruxsatnomasini olish jarayoni maksimal 1-2 oy davom etishi mumkin.
- Sotuvchi ushbu buyumni madaniy boyliklarga tegishli bo'lgan barcha milliy va xalqaro qonunlarga muvofiq sotib olganiga kafolat beradi. Kataviki ko'rgan guvohnoma.


Etrusk panteonining eng qudratli xudosi Tinia, tez -tez yunon va rim dinlari va afsonalarida Zevs va Yupiter bilan bog'liq bo'lgan, xuddi momaqaldiroq bilan paydo bo'ladi. Cho'zilgan chap qo'l bir paytlar tayoq ushlagan bo'lishi mumkin. Miloddan avvalgi 500 -yillar oxiri va 400 -yillarning boshidagi boshqa etrusk bronzalari orasida ko'plab o'xshashliklar topilgan bo'lsa -da, uning yuzasi g'ayrioddiy darajada qo'pol va dog'lar bilan qoplangan, ehtimol uning tashqi ko'rinishini himoya qilish yoki yaxshilash uchun mo'ljallangan zamonaviy ishlov berish yoki qoplamaning natijasi. Bronza tarkibining 2001 yildagi tahlili boshqa qadimgi Etrusk qotishmalariga mos keladigan natijalarni ko'rsatdi.


[JD1]It may seem obvious, but in the spirit of being super clear, I want to add “ancient” somewhere here—other ancient Etruscan alloys.


Etruscan Bronze Sculpture - History

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Tuscany is renowned to be the homeland of the Etruscan civilization that left many traces in all the region, as well as many works of art on display in several museums and sites - check out these post about 5 Etruscan artworks to see.

Below we listed 5 archeological areas that are out of the beaten track but definitely worth a visit for all archeology lovers eager to know more about the Etruscans.

Not too far from the center of the beautiful town of Sarteano, in the province of Siena, there is a large and very interesting necropolis called “Necropoli delle Pianacce”. The first tombs were discovered in 1954, but the most striking findings were discovered in 2003 when the archaeologists found the Tomb of the Infernal Chariot, Tomba della Quadriglia Infernale in Italian language.

Bu large tomb, dating back to 4th century BCE, is delightfully decorated with colorful paintings depicting a funeral parade in the main scene we see the Etruscan God Charun conducting a chariot with two lions and two griffons, followed by a scene representing a typical banquet and then a big and colorful snake with three heads.

Inside the tomb were found also valuable vases and other objects now preserved at the Archaeological Museum in Sarteano.

This large necropolis is included in the Archaeological Park of the Tufo, in the Maremma region, southern Tuscany. It is located nearby the enchanting town of Sovana and it counts several interesting Etruscan tombs, like the Tomba Ildebranda. It dates back to 3d century BCE and is one of the most important funeral monuments in this part of Tuscany. It is completely excavated into the tuff rock and includes two different parts: the external part that is a large monument with columns and the burial chamber. Archaeologists found evidences that the monument was finely decorated and colored.

In the necropolis there is also the impressive Tomb of the winged demons, yoki Tomba dei Demoni Alati, that preserves a large statue of a figure lying on a deathbed in a niche overwatched by demons and lions, and that is a significant example of aedicule tomb.

The Lake of the Idols, or Lago degli Idoli, is a little lake on Mount Falterona within the National Park of Foreste Casentinesi. Bu one of the most mysterious archaeological sites in Tuscany related to the Etruscan civilization in 1838, as a matter of fact, there was found by chance a bronze statuette of Hercules.

After the first finding they totally found about 650 different bronze statuettes - some of them are on display at the National Gallery in London and other international museums. Later on, between 2003 and 2007, archaeologists found other 200 bronze statuettes, that have both human and animal form, 9.000 Etruscan coins and about 4.000 fragments of iron arrows. Scholars think that the statuettes were religious offers to the Etruscan Gods. Most of these findings are on display at the Casentino Archaeological Museum located in Bibbiena.

On top of the hill of Frascole in the Mugello area, right in front of the Mount Falterona where the Idols Lake is, there is the Archaeological area of Frascole. The site preserves the ruins of a large Etruscan building with a rectangular plan and massive walls, that archaeologists suppose it was an important temple. On the other hand it was found the mane of the Velasna family written on a ceramic vase, so they also think it was a fortress.

In the area there were found also beautiful stone slabs that are funeral stele now on display at the Archaeological Museum in Dicomano. In the museum you see several finely decorated stone slabs, as well as Etruscan bronze statuettes and other valuable objects.

The Archaeological Museum of Chianciano Terme is a must-see site for Etruscan lovers. As a matter of fact the museum dedicated one large part of the exhibit to the reconstruction of several sepulchers with their burial goods that display objects in black ceramic, bronze figures and unique Etruscan canopies.

The canopies’ collection is one of the most important in the world because it includes funerary urns that have the form of men and women, as well as animals.


Men haqimda

I live life dangerously by ignoring the advice of Chuang Tzu: "Your life has a limit but knowledge has none. If you use what is limited to pursue what has no limit, you will be in danger". Badly spoiled by my wife, I spend mornings in sculpture studio, afternoons in record shop, evenings on the internet, weekends at the Palette and Chisel Academy and Art Institute of Chicago, and, the time spent in between, reading world literature. Am currently focused on the Middle East and South Asia.


Usil, the Etruscan god of the sun

Usil, the Etruscan god of the sun, is equated with the Greek and Roman Helios/Sol Invictus. Appliques depicting the god usually depict the deity with spread wings and a nimbus of rays surrounding his head which is also adorned with a diadem. On such a plaque obtained by the J. Paul Getty Museum, the figure merges into a broad plate decorated with undulating lines, suggesting the sea from which the sun emerges at daybreak and sinks at dusk.

"Ornamental reliefs such as this functioned as fittings on funeral carts and chariots, which often accompanied the burials of Etruria’s equestrian elite. Probably affixed to the sides of the vehicle, the winged god reflects the imagery of a celestial divinity driving the chariot of the sun across the sky, which was common in Greek and later Etruscan art. The earliest Usil plaque, in the Vatican Museums, was reportedly found at Roma Vecchia between 1760 and 1775 and was illustrated by Francesco Piranesi in 1778. In 1845, four similar plaques were discovered in the Tomb of the Quadriga at Vulci, which preserved the skeletons of horses. Among the appliqués held in the National Etruscan Museum of the Villa Giulia in Rome, the State Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, and other museums, some may belong to that burial. Although displaying slight variations in size, facial features, form of the plate, and position of the rivets, all are associated with a preeminent bronze-casting workshop in Vulci." - J. Paul Getty Museum

Other depictions of the Etruscan god feature Usil rising out of the sea, with a fireball in either outstretched hand, on an engraved Etruscan bronze mirror in late Archaic style and with a halo on Classical style Etruscan mirrors.

While Usil is depicted most often as male, there are also feminine depictions equating Usil with another indigenous Etruscan goddess, Catha, which is often interpreted as having a solar character. Usil is also shown in close association with Thesan, the dawn goddess, something almost never seen with Helios and Eos.


Etruscan Bronze Sculpture - History

Chapter 85: Graphic Design in the Lost Civilization of Etruscan

Due to the fact that their literature was deliberately destroyed in the first centuries A.D., the origin of Etruscans is a mystery. They arrived in the ninth century BC on the west coast of Italy that is now Tuscany. They resembled the Phoenicians, and perhaps they were sailing in small groups by sea from Asia Minor. Like Phoenicians they were traders and sailors and founded towns along the coast.They spoke a language unlike any other known European tongue, one hard to read and surviving mostly as limited tomb inscriptions. Scholars profess to have lost interest in pursuing the search for origins, perhaps because past efforts have brought nothing but confused and contradictory speculation.

The "Chimera di Arezzo," a bronze statue in typical Etruscan style

Apart from being great navigators, Etruscans are, nonetheless, known for having been among the first to make use of metallurgy and to raise it to an art form. They were very skilled in carving ornaments out of gold, silver, and bronze. The ancient Romans called them the Tusci or Etrusci, which later changed into Tuscany and Etruria. The ancient Greek knew them as as Τυρρηνοὶ (Tyrrhēnoi), earlier Tyrsenoi, from which the Romans derived the names Tyrrhēni (Etruscans), Tyrrhēnia (Etruria), and Mare Tyrrhēnum (Tyrrhenian Sea). The Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, which was syncopated to Rasna or Raśna.

Some Greeks held that the Etruscans were a branch of the Pelasgians, aboriginal inhabitants of the Aegean region, others such as Virgil thought they came from Lydia, a kingdom of western Anatolia. Herodotus also ascribes the origin of the Etruscans to Lydia, and reports that the ancestors of the Etruscans were forced to emigrate from Lydia because of 18 years of hard times. The Lydians built ships and half of the population left under the leadership of Tyrrhenus, the son of the king of Lydia.

The Pelasgians may have been the Sea People who around 1200 B.C. invaded the Egyptian Empire. The Greek historian, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in his Early History of Rome dismissed these theories and argued that the Etruscan were the aboriginal inhabitants of their area. The question became more intriguing when, in the nineteenth century, it was discovered that most of the languages of Europe belonged to one big language family called Indo-European but Etruscan was not one of them.

Sarcophagus from Cerveteri 520 BC (Etruscan) Rome, Villa Giulia

While some 13,000 Etruscan texts exist, most of these are very short, thus almost all the information about their culture is derived from their tombs, as they were obsessed with elaborate burials. The ancient Etruscans prepared extensively for the afterlife, furnishing elegant tombs ordering handsome coffins or sarcophagi, and performing meticulous and sophisticated rituals. Many Etruscan sites, primarily cemeteries and sanctuaries, have been excavated, notably at Veii, Cerveteri, Tarquinia, Vulci, and Vetulonia.

Numerous Etruscan tomb paintings portray in vivid color many different scenes of life, death, and myth. Their interest in elaborate burials has led researchers to suppose that they may have had an underlying belief, similar to the Egyptians that a part of the soul remained with the body, or at least that the body was important for the afterlife.The passion for performing rituals such as the funereal liturgy of the Phersu and other ceremonial games of skill was very widespread among the Etruscans.

According to Dr. Annette Rathje of the University of Copenhagen excavations at a site called Murlo, on a hill south of Siena, were turning up increasing evidence of large-scale settlement and monumental art, including bold friezes and some of the earliest architectural terra cottas in Italy. The ancient city had an impressive acropolis and an enormous building, the largest in Italy before the sixth century B.C., that appears to have consisted of many smaller structures around a courtyard. Statues of gods or dignitaries and mythical beasts adorned the place.

New research shows Etruscans were a conduit for the introduction of Greek culture and its pantheon of gods to the Romans. The Etruscans developed a version of the Greek alphabet, a step that influenced Roman letters and thereby northern Europe's. They built the first cities in Italy, when the hills of Rome stood barren of promise, and their influence shows up in later Roman works of architecture and engineering.

Romulus and Remus (the mythical founders of Rome) gives an idea of the great skill with which Etruscan artists worked.

The Etruscan culture developed from a prehistoric civilization known as Villanovan (ca. 900� B.C.). By the beginning of the seventh century B.C., the Etruscans occupied the central region of Italy between the Arno and Tiber rivers, and eventually settled as far north as the Po River valley and as far south as Campania. Around 540 BC, the Battle of Alalia led to a new distribution of power in the western Mediterranean Sea. Though the battle had no clear winner, Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of the Greeks, and Etruria saw itself relegated to the northern Tyrrhenian Sea with full ownership of Corsica. From the first half of the 5th century BC, the new international political situation meant the beginning of the Etruscan decline after losing their southern provinces.

In 480 BC, Etruria's ally Carthage was defeated by a coalition of Magna Graecia cities led by Syracuse. A few years later, in 474, Syracuse's tyrant Hiero defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae. Etruria's influence over the cities of Latium and Campania weakened, and it was taken over by Romans and Samnites. In the 4th century, Etruria saw a Gallic invasion end its influence over the Po valley and the Adriatic coast. Meanwhile, Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities. This led to the loss of the Northern Etruscan provinces. Etruria was conquered by Rome in the 3rd century BC.

Even after they were subjugated and then annexed by the Roman Republic, the Etruscans and their influence never entirely disappeared. They were assimilated. They lost their language to Latin, and yet their legacy has endured in surprising ways, beyond any part they had in spreading the Greek alphabet. In fact, Romans owed more than they ever admitted to the Etruscans. Their achievements in engineering impacted Roman aqueducts and basilicas. The tombs of the emperors Augustus and Hadrian deliberately imitated Etruscan ones from seven centuries before. The artists of the Renaissance also built upon Etruscan foundations, as seen in the palaces of Florence, the sculpture of Pisa and the painting of Siena. Painting frescoes on wet plaster had been an Etruscan talent.

The Tomb of The Augurs
The two characters with their hands extended upwards at each side of the door are generally interpreted as augurs, but others interpret them as relatives of the deceased. The name written on the wall is Apastanasar which contains the root apa (father).

Two wrestlers are depicted, possibly part of the funerary games.

This scene is also probably part of the funerary games, depicting a masked figure holding a rope in his hand. The rope is attached to the collar of a dog. When the Phersu (masked person) pulls on the rope, a nail on the dog's collar bites into its neck, enraging the animal and causing it to attack a tethered man, possibly a condemned criminal.

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The Tomb of the Bulls, Tomba dei Tori, Approximately 560 BC

The main subjects on the three parts of this chariot box perhaps refer to the life of Achilles. In the center, Achilles receives armor from Thetis, his mother. On one side, he engages in combat with another hero, possibly Memnon on the other side, he appears in a chariot drawn by winged horses. While the style and subject of the reliefs look to Greek art and myth, the treatment of the scenes is thoroughly Etruscan.

The Etruscans were interested in sea creatures and birds. On one side the shoulder panel of this jar shows two mermen, on the other two belligerent dogs. Below, six metopes deployed fairly regularly around the circumference contain water birds, each somewhat different.

This colorful and unusual work represents one enterprising Etruscan artist's response to an originally Greek shape and type of decoration. The form of the amphora, the inclusion of a lid, the two-part handles, the pendant lotus buds in the shoulder panels, the rays at the base of the body, and the echinus foot derive from Athenian prototypes of the mid-sixth century B.C.

On this black-figure hydria, the Greek hero Herakles battles the Lernean Hydra while a large crab nips at his foot. His companion Iolaos attacks from the other side, cutting off one of the monster's heads with a harpe or short curved sword. Two sphinxes flank the handle on the back of the vessel, and floral decoration covers the rest of the vase: an ivy tendril on the shoulder and a palmette and lotus frieze on the lower body.

This hydria is one of a small group of painted vases produced at Caere in Etruria. All these vases appear to come from one workshop, which may have had two artists. Caeretan hydriai display many of the basic elements of Greek vase-painting reinterpreted for an Etruscan market, using a more vivid range of colors and emphasizing the importance of floral ornament in the decoration. They are unusual in that the artist used a template for the floral decoration, a technique not otherwise known in Greek vase-painting.


CRISTOFANI M., I bronzi degli Etruschi, Novara, 1985, pp. 278-279.

DE PUMA R. D., Etruscan Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, New Haven, London, 2013, p. 151, figs. 5.9 – 5.10.

HAYNES S., Etruscan Bronzes, London, New York, 1985, pp. 280-281, nos. 94, 97.

MAULE Q., The Master of Florence Warrior 586, in Studiya Etruschi 57, 1991, pp. 53-63.

A Passion for Antiquities, Ancient Art from the Collection of Barbara and Lawrence Fleischman, Malibu, 1994, pp. 164-166, no. 76.

RICHARDSON E., Etruscan Votive Bronzes: Geometric, Orientalizing, Archaic, Mainz am Rhein, 1983, pp. 180-181, fig. 413.


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