Ma `lumot

Neyport 21


Neyport 21

Nieuport 21 muvaffaqiyatli Nieuport Type 17 qiruvchi samolyotining bir varianti edi, lekin dvigateli kam va kengaytirilgan aileronlari bor edi. Standart Nieuport 17 110 ot kuchiga ega Le Rhône dvigateli bilan jihozlangan, lekin 21 -toifali dvigatel 80 ot kuchiga ega Le Rhône 9C bilan almashtirilgan. Turli manbalarda bu o'zgarishning ikkita sababi bor - yangi samolyot qiruvchi -murabbiy sifatida yaratilgani yoki balandlikdagi bombardimonchilarni kuzatib borish uchun ishlab chiqarilgani va dvigatelning o'zgarishi og'irlikni tejash va balandlik ko'rsatkichlarini yaxshilash uchun qilingan. Bu ikkinchi alternativ balandlikdagi ingichka havoda manevr qobiliyatini yaxshilash uchun mo'ljallangan aileronlarning kattalashishi bilan qo'llab -quvvatlanadi. Bundan tashqari, kam quvvatli dvigatel 110 ot kuchiga ega Le Rhone kamligi tufayli qabul qilingan bo'lishi mumkin.

Nieuport 21 ning asl maqsadi nima bo'lishidan qat'i nazar, u tez orada standart jangchi bo'lib xizmat qildi. U 1916 yil iyun oyining o'rtalarida sinovdan o'tgan va 1 avgustga qadar xizmatda bo'lgan, lekin ko'p o'tmay, frantsuzlar kunduzgi bombardimondan voz kechishdi va yangi qiruvchi, ehtimol, asl maqsadini yo'qotdi.

Tur 1916 yil 1 sentyabrdagi rasmiy belgilar ro'yxatida Nieuport 21 sifatida qayd etilgan va oldingi jangchilar bilan xizmat ko'rsatgan. eskadril. U tomonidan ishlatilgan Eskadril Lafayet (Amerika ko'ngillilar bo'linmasi), u erda Serjent Raul Lufberi boshqargan samolyotlardan biri bo'lgan.

Nieuport 21, shuningdek, kamida beshta turdagi Rossiya havo xizmati va Amerika ekspeditsiya kuchlari bo'lgan RNAS tomonidan ishlatilgan. Amerikaliklar 181 ta samolyot olishdi, oxirgi partiyasi 1918 yil yanvarda kelgan. Ulardan Frantsiyada joylashgan Amerika bo'linmalari uchun o'quv samolyoti ishlatilgan.

Dvigatel: Le Rhône 9C
Quvvat: 80 ot kuchi
Ekipaj: 1
Balandligi: 26 fut 9.25 dyuym
Uzunligi: 19 fut 0.33 dyuym
Balandligi: 7 fut 10,5 dyuym
Bo'sh vazn: 772 lb
Maksimal uchish vazni: 1,168 lb
Maksimal tezlik: dengiz sathida 94 mil / soat
Chiqish tezligi: 8m 45s dan 6,560ftgacha
Xizmat tavan: 17,220 fut
Chidamlilik: 2 soat

Birinchi jahon urushi haqidagi kitoblar | Mavzu indeksi: Birinchi jahon urushi


Gustav Delajni tan oldi selvenna ja sen ensilento tapahtui vuonna 1916. Kie oli heikompitehoisella moottorilla varustettu versio Nieuport 17 -hävittäjästä ja seununiteltiin alin perin koulukoneeksi. Typpi jouduttiin kuitenkin konepulan kayttämään operatiivisissa textävissä. Konyita myytiin muun muassa Venäjän keisarikunnalle sekä Yhdysvaltoihin. Ventikoneista va boshqa variantlar -Le Rhône -moottorilla. Valyuta hisobini ochish uchun ruxsat berish shartlari, A/O Duks.

Nieuport 21 -koneen (valmistusnumero 1 325) sotsaaliiksi Tampereella huhtikuussa 1918. Kone oli käytössä tunnuksella D86/18 4. huhtikuuta 1923 tapahtuneeseen poistoon asti.


Ularni o'chirib qo'yish kerak [tahrir qilish | tahrir qilish]

Vesikoslovenskie legie v Rusku používaly bluhem svého stahování do Vladivostoku dva stroje Nieuport 21. Dne 10. září 1918 pieeltl Nieuport 21 .1.1940 yil bolshevickych jednotek k čs. mantiqiy. Donlarni ishlab chiqaruvchi vosita Ron (frantsuz tilidagi Le Rhone). O'ylab ko'ringki, siz o'zingizni yaxshi his qilasiz. Velosipedlar ro'yxati 1918 yildagi o'yinlar bilan bog'liq holda, Nieuport 21 č.1359 (Ron opts vyrobený v továrně Duks s motorem Ron). Vladivostok va vednu 1920 yil yozilganidan so'ng, rus tilidagi o'yinlar.


COC "21" sinfini nishonlaydi: "Tarixning ko'zlari bizda"

Kanyonlar kolleji bitiruvchilari A. Bizares, chap va Larisa Barlan, 06032 yil payshanba kuni Valensiyadagi Kanyonlar kollejidagi Honor Groveda bo'lib o'tgan 2021 Grad Walk bayramida selfi qilmoqdalar. Dan Uotson/Signal

Kanyonlar kolleji bitiruvchilari iyun oyining birinchi haftasida daraja va sertifikatlar tugashini nishonlash uchun sahnani o'zgartirish marosimini o'tkazdilar.

COCda 2360 talaba 2021 yilgi bitiruvni so'rab murojaat qilgan, ularning ba'zilari o'zgartirish marosimida qatnashishgan, ular kampusning "Honors Grove" sahnasida yurish, diplomlarini yig'ish va do'stlari va oilasi bilan suratga tushish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lishgan.

Kanyonlar kolleji bitiruvchisi Jimena Linares, markazda, 06032 yil payshanba kuni Valensiyadagi Kanyonlar kollejidagi Honor Groveda bo'lib o'tgan 2021 yilgi Grad yurishida, chapda va onasi Ezekiel Linares va onasi Graciela Berber bilan tugatgan fotosurati uchun. Dan Uotson/Signal

Bitiruv yurishidan oldin, COC bitiruvchilarni rasmiy marosim bilan taqdirlash uchun virtual tantanali marosim o'tkazdi, unda COC fakultetining mehmonlari va bitiruvchi talabalar ishtirok etishdi.

Talaba Bryus Van Der Klomp marosim davomida valediktorlik ma'ruzachisi bo'lib, u o'z nutqida "hamma narsani mukammal qilib ko'rsatishni" xohlamasligini, aksincha halollikka e'tibor qaratishni va bitiruvchilarning kuchi haqida gapirishni xohlaganini ta'kidladi.

"Men, bizning sinfimiz, o'tgan bir yarim yil ichida nimalarni boshdan kechirganimizni va nima qilganimizni eslasam," tarix bizga ko'z bilan qaraydi "dan ko'ra mosroq iborani topa olmadim", dedi u. "Biz o'nlab avlodlar bilan bir xil qalpoq va xalat kiyamiz, ammo yutuqlarimiz o'ziga xosdir."

Kayl Jensen, chapda, Kanyonlar kolleji bitiruvchisi Kelli Tootl va 13 yoshli o'g'li Dilan bilan 2021 yil, Valensiyadagi Kanyonlar kollejining Hurmatli bog'ida, 06032 payshanba kuni o'tkazilgan Grad Yurish bayramida nishonlamoqda. Dan Uotson /Signal

COC kantsleri Dianne Van Xuk talabalarga COVID-19 pandemiyasi bilan duch kelgan qiyinchiliklarni muhokama qildi, masalan, ish joyining to'satdan yo'qolishi, kasal bo'lib qolish yoki virusdan kimnidir yo'qotish, shuningdek, onlayn o'qishga o'tish.

"Ba'zida eng muhim saboqlar faqat kitoblardan emas, balki hayotda boshdan kechirganlarimizdan o'rganiladi", dedi u. "O'tgan 15 oy tajribaga boy bo'ldi va har bir to'siqdan va har bir o'zgarishdan ko'p narsani o'rganish imkoniga ega bo'ldi."

Bitiruvchi sinf 104 ta mutaxassislikni ifodalaydi, ularning aksariyati liberal san'at, biznes yoki psixologiya bo'yicha diplom yoki sertifikatlar oladi va 900 dan ortiq talabalar o'z diplomlari bilan bir qatorda sharafga sazovor bo'lishadi.

Kanyonlar kolleji bitiruvchisi Larisa Barlan, o'ngda, otasi Lauro Barlan, 2060 yil, Valensiyadagi Kanyonlar kollejining Hurmatli bog'ida, 2021 yilgi Grad yurishida, Lauro Barlanning o'pishidan payshanba, 06032. Dan Uotson/Signal

Sara Quintanilla - ikki yoki undan ortiq diplom olgan 930 o'quvchidan biri.

"Men COCda taxminan 10 yil oldin ish boshlaganman", dedi Kvintanilla. "Men bu erda bitta darsni va u erda bitta darsni boshladim va men o'z tanlovlarimni muhokama qilish uchun ko'plab maslahatchilar bilan gaplashishga muvaffaq bo'ldim, chunki men martaba yo'nalishlarini o'zgartirmoqchi edim."

Bitiruv kunida, Kvintanilla uchta alohida darajadagi tanlov talablarini bajardi: buxgalteriya hisobi, liberal san'at va psixologiya. U Kaliforniya shtati universitetida buxgalteriya diplomini olishni rejalashtirgan.

Ko'plab bitiruvchilar shtat va mamlakatning to'rt yillik maktablarida o'z diplomlarini davom ettiradilar, masalan, kuzda CSU kanal orollariga borishni rejalashtirgan Mikela Anbessav.

"Bu oddiy bitiruvga o'xshamaydi, lekin menimcha, bu yaxshiroq edi, chunki siz ham oilangiz va sizga g'amxo'rlik qiladigan odamlar bilan bo'lishingiz kerak", - deydi hamshiralik bo'yicha aspirantura darajasini tugatgan Anbessav. "(COC) haqiqatan ham bu kunni baxtli qilishga harakat qildi. Odamlar hamma joydan xursandchilik qilishyapti va sizga kuningizni maroqli o'tkazishingizga yordam berishmoqda ”.


Mavzu: Airdrom samolyotlari Nieuport 17

Men www.theaerodrome.com saytida davom etayotgan bo'lsam -da, men Frankning yo'l -yo'rig'iga ergashib, o'z loyihamdan biror narsani bu erga joylashtiraman deb o'yladim.

Men Nieuport Airdrome Airplanes 17. to'liq o'lchamli versiyasini quryapman. Men 6'2 & quot va 210 va 220 oralig'ida bo'lganim uchun, 7/8 o'lchovi menga mos kelmasligini his qildim. Men 2007 yilda Dawn Patrol Rendezvous -ga tashrif buyurganimda, bu samolyotlardan birini ishlab chiqarishda xatolarga duch keldim. Men 2009 yilda yana bordim, lekin o'sha paytda xatolik yuz bermadi. Ammo, negadir, 2010 yilning kuzida men yana xatoga yo'l qo'ydim, qolganlari esa tarix.

Men birinchi bo'lib Graham Li reja kitobiga buyurtma berdim, keyin uni noldan sinab ko'rishdan ko'ra, menga to'plam kerak deb qaror qildim. Men AA to'plamini tanladim, chunki men buni uy qurilishi mumkin bo'lgan kam sonli samolyot loyihalaridan biri deb hisobladim. (Avtomobillar to'plamini yasashimga 6 yil kerak bo'ldi.) Men Nieuport 28 -ga juda qiziqib qoldim, lekin N 17 -ga qiziqib qoldim, chunki menda Lufbery ranglariga bo'yalgan 1/6 o'lchovli VK N 17 bor. Mening boshqa imkoniyatim Sopwit Pup edi. Menda ham qora va oq shashka bilan bo'yalgan 1/3 o'lchovli R/C Pup bor. To'liq hajmli versiya haqiqiy shou to'xtatuvchisi bo'ladi. Biroq, men o'z qarorimni qabul qilayotganimda, menga bu to'plamning ba'zi jihatlari yoqmadi (tuzatilganidan beri). Shuning uchun men N 17 ni tanladim.

Dvigatelga kelsak, menda Rotec R2800 7 tsilindrli radius bor.

Endi men haqimda. Men asboblar reytingiga ega litsenziyali shaxsiy uchuvchiman. Garchi men bu loyihani boshlagan paytimda, men bir necha yil oldin Stearman -da uchishni to'xtatib qo'yganim haqida belgi olgan bo'lsam -da, o'zimni yaxshi his qilmaganman, bundan tashqari, bir necha yil o'tdi. Men Citabria bilan juda mahalliy janobni topdim va u bilan dumg'aza (va aerobatik) vaqtini qurdim.

Garchi AA bu samolyotlarni 400 soat ichida qurish mumkinligini e'lon qilsa -da, haqiqat meni 3 yillik loyihaga olib keldi. Mening maqsadim - uchish va cheklash vaqti 2014 yil sentyabr oyida navbatdagi Dawn Patrul Rendezvous rejalashtirilganidan keyin uchib ketish.

Biz may oyida og'riq uyida ikki kun ishladik, keyin hammasini uyga olib keldik. Ish va oilaviy majburiyatlar tufayli, shuningdek, ba'zi sohalarni "yangilash" ni xohlaganim sababli, biz qaytganimizdan keyin taraqqiyot sekinlashdi. Mana hozir qaerda bo'lgani haqida bir nechta fotosuratlar.

Mana, uning oxiri qanday bo'lishi kerak

Hozirda men qo'nish moslamasining pastki uchlari uchun o'zgartirilgan V plitalari va qo'shimchalari ustida ishlayapman. Bir necha soatdan so'ng, bu erda asosiy naqshlar.


21 yoshli Jeremiya Paprokki bilan tanishing, "Chicago Cubs" kompaniyasining birinchi Black PA diktori sifatida tarixga kirdi.

Amerikaning ajoyib o'yin -kulgilariga qaytish, nostaljik soundtrack va mdash bilan birga keladi, bu organ va yuqoridan kelgan ovoz. Wrigley Fieldda, bu baland ovoz, eshitilgandan ko'ra yoshroq.

Ochiq muloqot mikrofonidagi diktor 21 yoshli Jeremiya Paprokki bo'lib, u bu lavozimni egallagan birinchi qora tanli va Wrigley tarixidagi eng yoshi.

"Men bu tushni o'yin maydonidan tashqarida deb o'yladim, lekin bu erda men ovoz maydonida to'p maydonida bo'ldim. Demak, hamma narsa bo'lishi mumkin", dedi u CBS News telekanali muxbiri Adriana Diasga.

Uning yangi ofisi va mdash "matbuot qutisida", dedi u.

Chikagodagi Illinoys universiteti kolleji bitiruvchisi o'tgan yilni masofadan turib tugatadi.

Stadionda afsonaviy pley-off spikeri Garri Karay va vaqti-vaqti bilan mikrofonni o'zi olib ketadigan Bill Myurrey kabi mashhur super muxlislar yashagan.

Ommabop yangiliklar

Endi Paprocki muxlislarni tabriklaydi: "Xayrli kun va go'zal Wrigley Fieldda beysbolga xush kelibsiz".

Paprocki Diazga aytganidek, bu lavozimga ega bo'lish "ko'p narsani anglatadi", ayniqsa, Rigli Fildning birinchi Black PA diktori.

"Ijtimoiy iqlim yaxshi emas edi", dedi u. "Va mening hikoyamni yolg'iz qoldirish uchun, bilingki, ko'plab ijobiy odamlar va" ha, siz juda katta ilhomlisiz ", deyishadi.

Ilhom manbai bo'lib, Paprocki o'ziga xos sport yulduziga aylandi. U tez -tez to'p maydonidan tashqarida Cubs muxlislari tomonidan tan olinadi.

Chikago Tribunining birinchi qora tanli sport yozuvchisi, DePaul universiteti professori Fred Mitchellning aytishicha, u Paprokki uchun "albatta baxtli" bo'lsa -da, uning tanlovi yanada katta masalani ta'kidlaydi.

"Bu ishga qabul qilinayotgan e'tibor beysbolga, o'zlariga nazar tashlab, aytaylik, biz qanchalik xilma -xilmiz?" - dedi Mitchell. "Majburiy beysbol ligasi umuman skautlar, front -ofis rahbarlari, xodimlar o'rtasida xilma -xillik haqida gap ketganda kamlik qiladi. O'ylaymanki, bu erda juda ko'p yaxshilanishlarni amalga oshirish mumkin".

Paprokkiga kelsak, uning beysbolga bo'lgan ishtiyoqi irsiydir.

"Men har doim" Cubs "muxlisi bo'lganman. Onam bunga ishonch hosil qilgan. Bilasizmi, u meni birinchi o'yinimga bir necha oyligimda olib kelgan", dedi u.

Uning onasi bir vaqtlar Wrigley Fieldda mashinalar xizmatchisi bo'lib ishlagan va oila o'yinlarga borganda, Paprocki diktorlarga taqlid qilishini aytgan.

O'rta maktabda PA boshlovchisi sifatida ish boshlagan Paprocki, Facebookda e'lon qilingan Cubs ishini ko'rib, imkoniyatni ko'rdi. U tanlovni parkdan chiqarib yubordi.

"Bu qandaydir tarzda hazil bo'lishi kerakdek tuyuladi, balki men tush ko'rayapman, shuning uchun hozircha bilmayman", dedi u.


Neyport 21

Neyport 21 merupakan kapal terbang yang dihasilkan oleh Nieuport nashri Anonyme des Établissements yang diasaskan di Issy-les-Moulineaux, Parij pada tahun 1910. Ia faol pada tahap awal penerbangan Eropah. O'ylaymanki, 1914 yil, Germaniya va boshqa davlatlar tomonidan yozilgan. Anonyme des Établissements Nieuport nashri telafizik mantiqni ochib berishdan oldin, men o'zimga aytamanki, men o'zimga ishonaman.

Bu 21 -sonli Gustave Delage -dan keyin, biz sizning shaxsiy hisob -kitoblaringizni birdaniga ochib bera olamiz. Nieuport 21 -ni yozib oling, bu sizning xohishingizga ko'ra, alyuminiy, alyuminiy, alyuminiy, alyuminiy va boshqa materiallardan iborat. Qisqa ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, tuzilmalar ishlab chiqarilishi, ishlab chiqarilishi, ishlab chiqarilishi, ishdan bo'shatilishi, sayg'oqning bahosi 'sesquiplane' lebih sempit, xonaning ajralishi keluasan sayap atas. Gear pendaratan adalah jenis gelincir ekor ("tailskid"), birlik utama terdiri dari sokongan ikatan Vee diikat wayar melalui paksi.

Nieuport 21, Nieuport 17, yangi RHBne 9C 80-kVa (60-kVt) va boshqa qurilmalar bilan jihozlangan. AEF, Nieuport 21 -aval (181 -chi kun), 17 -sonli Le -RhBne 9J, 198 -chi va boshqa -boshqa narsalar. Nieuport 23 -versiyasi, Nieuport -ning yangi versiyasi 17 -chi versiya 17. AEF -ning boshqa bo'limlari 50 -chi daqiqalarni tashkil qiladi (RJ 47) (9 -son) 3).


Oq uy Jo Baydenning "tizimli irqchilik" tarixidagi o'rni haqidagi savollardan qochadi.

3,563 AP surati/Bob Bird

Oq uy matbuot kotibi Jen Psaki chorshanba kuni prezident Jo Baydenning "tizimli irqchilik" va "8221" tarixidagi roli haqidagi savollardan qochdi.

“Prezident Bayden tizimli irqchilikda o'z rolini qanchalik tan oladi? Va bu uning siyosatdagi pozitsiyalaridan qanday xabardor? ” Stiven Nelson Psakidan so'radi.

"Prezidentning asosiy maqsadlaridan biri bu mamlakatda irqiy adolatsizlikka qarshi kurashish", - deb javob berdi Psaki, bu savolni chetlab o'tib. “Bu uning ritorikasi orqali emas, balki xatti -harakatlari orqali, - deya qo'shimcha qildi u.

Psaki keyin Baydenning qonunchilikdagi "8220 harakatlari" haqida batafsil ma'lumot berdi, Bayden o'z prezidentligida bu masalalarga ustuvorlik berish uchun Oq Uyda o'zining etakchilar guruhini so'raganini aytdi. , o'ttiz yil oldin emas, bugun. ”

Nelson ortidan ergashdi va u [Bayden] o'z aybini tan olishni muhim deb hisoblaydimi?

Psaki Nelsonni kesib tashladi, ” Men sizning savolingizga javob berdim deb o'ylayman. ”

Jurnalist dastlab o'z so'rovining boshida, 1980 va 1990 -yillarda Jo Baydenning federal qonunlarning me'mori bo'lish tarixini, qora tanli odamlarni nomutanosib ravishda qamoqqa tashlagan va ko'pchilik tizimli irqchilik deb hisoblagan hissa qo'shgan.

Faol Kornel Uest, va#8221, muxbir ma'lumot berishda davom etdi, "Bayden ommaviy qamoqxonaning asosiy me'morlaridan biri edi" va menimcha, Bayden mas'uliyatni o'z zimmasiga olishi va tan olishi kerak. u ommaviy qamoqxonaga qo'shgan hissasi. "”

Bunga Psaki hech qanday javob bermadi.

Savol: Prezident Bayden tizimli irqchilikdagi o'z rolini qanchalik tan oladi? /W3UeWZ0yUu

- Vashington Examiner (@dcexaminer) 2021 yil 21 aprel

"Tizimli irqchilik" va "8221" kontseptsiyasi "Irq" jamg'armasi "bugungi shaxsiyat siyosatidagi asosiy falsafiy maktab" va "Amerikaning barcha me'yorlari va urf -odatlariga tinimsiz hujum" deb ta'riflagan tanqidiy irq nazariyasidan kelib chiqadi. boshqaruvning chaproq modeli. ”

“Falsafa hozirgi kunda "bilan" paydo bo'ldi New York Times"Fuqarolik huquqlari bo'yicha AQSh komissiyasi a'zosi Piter Kirsanov tarixni targ'ib qilishning eng muhim urinishlaridan biri deb atagan" 1619 yilgi loyiha. "Breitbart News xabar berdi.

Tanqidiy irq nazariyasi 1937 yilda, Germaniyaning Frankfurt maktabining marksistik akademiklari "An'anaviy va tanqidiy nazariya" manifestini chiqarganlarida, hech qanday universal haqiqat yo'q deb ishlab chiqilgan. Buning o'rniga, haqiqatlar "raqobatbardosh hikoyalar" bo'lib, "chaplar o'z qadriyatlarini yuklashga" asos yaratadi.


Ehtiros va g'azab: Mik Mannok

Kapitan Edvard "Mik" Mannok 1918 yil 31 martda o'zining S.E.5a D276 "A" da 74 -sonli eskadron bilan London Kolnidan Frantsiyaga jo'nab ketishga tayyorgarlik ko'rmoqda.

RAF parvoz etakchisi Edvard "Mik" Mannok o'zining meteorik jangovar faoliyatini eskadron do'stlariga G'arbiy frontning halokatli osmonida qanday omon qolishni o'rgatishga bag'ishladi.

1918 yil aprel oyida, Frantsiyaning shimoli -g'arbiy qismida, kunning ikkinchi yarmida, Qirollik havo kuchlarining 74 -sonli uchish bo'linmasi ikkinchi patrulida edi. Bu bo'linmaning birinchi jang kuni edi va ularning uchuvchisi kapitan Edvard "Mik" Mankokdan boshqa barcha uchuvchilar yangi edi. Uning odamlari ko'zlarini katta-katta ko'rib turganlarida, Mannok to'satdan qanotlarini qimirlatib, dushman yaqinda ekanligini, keyin nemis "Albatros" jangchilarining qirg'iy singari yiqilib tushishini aytdi. Mannok Aldis ko'rinishida qora-sariq Albatros D.V markaziga o'tirdi, nafas oldi va olov tugmachasini sekin bosib, ipak oq izlovchilarning halokatli oqimini yo'qotdi. Albatroslar havoda tarqab ketishdi. Erga qaytib, uchuvchilar kapitanni ikkinchi g'alabasi bilan tabrikladilar, lekin ularni cheksiz hayratga solgan narsa Mannokning jangovar hisoboti bo'lib, u shunday yozgan edi: "Butun reys EA uchun kreditni baham ko'rishi kerak. dushman samolyotlari], chunki ularning barchasi uning yo'q qilinishiga hissa qo'shgan.

Bu ogohlantirish Britaniyaning eng buyuk jangovar uchuvchilari va erkaklar etakchilaridan biri Edvard Mannokning hayotini tavsiflovchi o'rtoqlariga fidokorona va kuchli sadoqatni ko'rsatdi. Qanday bo'lmasin, u g'ayrioddiy sovg'alarga ega bo'lgan odam edi, u jangovar uchuvchi sifatida o'zining ajoyib faoliyati davomida uni bilgan va sevganlarga bo'lgani kabi urushdan keyingi dunyoga ham katta ta'sir ko'rsatgan bo'lardi.

Mannok 1887 yil 24 mayda Irlandiyaning Kork shahrida tug'ilgan, Buyuk Britaniya imperatorlik urushlarida qatnashgan Shotlandiya Qirollik gvardiyasi askarining o'g'li. U qo'pol odam edi, u Edvard va ukalarini urdi va ko'p ichdi. Otasini Hindistonga jo'natishganda, Mannok amoebik infektsiyaga chalingan, bu uning chap ko'zini zaiflashtirgan. Bu baxtsizlik keyinchalik Mannokning "bir ko'zli as" bo'lishi haqidagi tez-tez takrorlanadigan afsonaga aylanadi. Erta qiyinchiliklarga qaramay, yosh Edvard o'tkir tahliliy fikrga ega edi. U tengsizlikni yomon ko'rdi va keyinchalik qizg'in sotsialistga aylandi.

Mannok yoshligida, otasi oilasini tashlab ketdi va Edvard ularni boqish uchun ishlashi kerak edi. U uydan chiqib, Eyles oilasi bilan o'tirdi. Keyinchalik Jim Eylz Mannak "yuksak g'oyalarga ega va o'z odamlariga bo'lgan katta muhabbatli inson" deb yozgan. U shafqatsizlik va qashshoqlikni yomon ko'rar edi va#8230. Siz hech qachon uchrata olmaydigan mehribon, o'ychan odam. " Ko'rinishidan, Mannok Leyboristlar partiyasida ko'tarilgan bo'lishi mumkin, chunki u zo'r ma'ruzachi edi. Ammo yaqinlashib kelayotgan global yong'in tez orada uning yuksak ambitsiyalarini puchga chiqaradi.

1914 yil avgustda urush e'lon qilinganida, Mannak Buyuk Britaniyaning Konstantinopoldagi kompaniyasida ishlagan. Usmonli imperiyasi Germaniya tarafida bo'lganligi sababli, u va boshqa Britaniya fuqarolari dahshatli sharoitlarga duch kelgan qamoqxonalarga tashlandi. Mannok tezda turklar va nemislarga nisbatan nafratni rivojlantirdi. 1915 yil aprelda Jim Eylz yordami bilan uni vataniga qaytarishdi. Ko'p o'tmay, Mannok Qirollik armiyasi tibbiy korpusiga, so'ngra qirollik muhandislariga qo'shildi va u erda ikkinchi leytenant tayinlandi. Ammo u 1916 yil avgustda darhol Qirollik uchish korpusiga (RFC) o'tdi, shuning uchun uni janglarga ko'proq jalb qilish mumkin edi.

Chap ko'zining zaifligiga qaramay, Mannok tibbiy ko'rikdan o'tdi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, u tabiiy uchuvchi bo'lib, o'z mashinasini juda yaxshi his qilgan. Uning o'qituvchilardan biri, Frantsiyada jangovar parvozdan qaytgan, kapitan Jeyms Makkudden edi. Ikkalasi yaxshi munosabatda bo'lishdi va Makkudden shogirdiga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. "Mannok, - deb yozgan Makkudden, - irlandiyalik shijoatli odamning odatiy namunasi edi va men uni har doim o'ladigan yoki qiladigan odam deb o'ylardim". U ikkalasini ham Frantsiyada qiladi.

1917 yil 6 aprelda Mannok parvoz mashg'ulotlari tugagach, yuqori qanot tepasida bitta Lyuis pulemyoti bilan qurollangan, Fransiyaning manevrli Nieuport 17 qiruvchi samolyotini boshqaradigan 40-sonli eskadroning C reysiga yuborildi. Mannok hayotida yangi bosqich boshlandi va u har doimgidek qiyinchiliklarga to'la edi. U o'zining yangi uyida dahshatli birinchi taassurot qoldirdi va jamoatchilik maktabidagi RFC eskadronining muhitini qadrlamay, deyarli barchasini noto'g'ri yo'ldan urdi. Leytenant Lionel A. Blaxland, eskadronning sherigi, Mannok "o'z tajribasi uchun juda kulgili bo'lib tuyuldi", deb esladi. Yangi erkaklar odatda o'z vaqtlarini olib, ko'proq tajribali qo'llariga quloq solishdi. U hamma narsa haqida g'oyalarni taklif qildi: urush qanday o'tayotgani, unga qarshi qanday kurashish kerakligi, skaut uchuvchilarning o'rni. U, shuningdek, uchuvchilik odob -axloq qoidalarining bir nechta yozilmagan qoidalarini buzdi, o'rtoqlardan so'radi: ular qancha "hun" larni urishdi va dahshatli soxta pas - o'ldirilgan uchuvchi ilgari o'tirgan o'rindiqda o'tirishdi.


Mannok qirollik uchish korpusining 40 -sonli "Nieuport 17" eskadronining kokpitida o'tiradi, u jangda o'zini qo'rqoq deb hisoblagan eskadron sheriklariga burun bo'yog'ini barmog'i bilan bo'yalgan sariq ip bilan o'ralgan. (O'Brayen Braunning ruxsati bilan)

Eng yomoni, Mannok soatlab maqsadli mashg'ulotlarda qatnashdi, lekin chiziqlar bo'ylab dushman samolyotlari bilan to'qnash kelganda ikkilanib qoldi. U o'zining birinchi jangovar patrulidagi his -tuyg'ularini 1917 yil 13 aprelda o'z kundaligiga yozib qo'ydi: "Men birinchi marta chiziqlarni kesib o'tdim, FElarni kuzatib bordim [Farman Experimental F.E.2b razvedka samolyotlari]. Og'ir "Archied." Mening his -tuyg'ularim juda kulgili. " Darhaqiqat, chalkashlikda juda katta gaplashgan yangi uchuvchi juda qo'rqardi. Keyingi reyslarda Mannok uchuvchi jargonida "shamolli" yoki "shamol ko'tarilgan" dushman oldida qo'rqinchli ko'rinardi. Ba'zi eskadron sheriklari undan qochib, orqasidan u haqida gapira boshlashdi. Tez orada otryad o'z tarafdorlari va dushmanlariga bo'lindi.

Uning dushmanlarini faqat amallar bilan jim qilish mumkin edi. Ular 19 -aprel kuni Mannokning jasoratini tatib ko'rishdi, 2000 metr balandlikdagi nishonga sho'ng'ish paytida, uning Nieuportining pastki o'ng qanoti uzilib, samolyot pastga tushdi. Mannok qandaydir yo'l bilan mayiblangan kemani xavfsiz qo'ndirishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Sing-froid va uchish mahoratining namoyishidan so'ng, boshqa uchuvchilar u haqidagi fikrlarini qayta ko'rib chiqa boshladilar.

7 may kuni Mannok yana besh kishidan iborat nemis kuzatuv balonlariga zarba berish uchun qo'shilganida, ular yanada taassurot qoldirishdi. Mannok o'sha kuni birinchi g'alabasi uchun sharni yo'q qildi. Ammo u o'z kundaligiga shunday yozgan edi: “Mening korpusimning o'q o'qlari bor edi, boshimga juda yaqin edi, qanotlari esa ozmi -ko'pmi jumboq edi. Men bunday tajribani qayta boshdan kechirishni xohlamayman. "

Shunday bo'lsa -da, yangi ishonch bilan ishdan bo'shatilgan Mannok havoda yanada tajovuzkor bo'lib qoldi va endi eskadronga qabul qilindi, ilgari unga sovuq yelkasini berib yuborgan erkaklar endi chalkashlikdan ichimliklar sotib olishdi. U ba'zida jangovar patrullarni boshqargan va hech bo'lmaganda ikki marta u nemis samolyotini urib tushirganiga ishongan, lekin guvohlar bo'lmaganligi uchun da'vo qilmagan. Uning buyuk orzusi dushman samolyoti ustidan "haqiqiy" g'alaba qozonish edi, lekin bu uni chetlab o'tdi.

Uning tirishqoqligi oxir -oqibat o'z samarasini berdi. 7 -iyun kuni Lilldan shimolda Nieuport B1552 uchib, Mannok Albatros D.III dan 13000 fut balandlikda ketdi. U F.E.2b bombardimonchilaridan iborat eskadron uchun eskort bilan uchib kelgan. Orqadan kirib, Mannok 10 yardda nemis qiruvchisiga 60 ta o'q otdi va u nazoratdan chiqib ketdi, bu haqda u bazada quvonch bilan xabar berdi.

Ko'p o'tmay, Mannok ko'zidan jarohat oldi va ikki haftalik ta'tilga uyga yuborildi. U uydagi vaqtini jangovar taktika haqida o'ylashga ishlatdi va yana o'z bo'linmasiga qo'shilganda, uning jangovar qobiliyatiga ishonch hosil qildi. 12-iyul kuni Mannok Britaniya liniyalari ichida qulab tushgan DFW C.V ikki o'rinli mashinasini urib tushirdi. O'zining "ishini" yaqindan o'rganish imkoniyatidan xursand bo'lgan Mannok halokatga uchragan joyga yo'l oldi. Kuzatuvchi tirik qoldi, lekin uchuvchi o'lgan edi. Bazaga qaytgach, u bu haqda do'sti leytenant Uilyam Maklanachan bilan gaplashdi. "Bu meni xafa qildi, - dedi Mannok, - lekin men o'qlarim qayerga ketganini ko'rishni xohlardim. Bilasizmi, bu erda uchta kichik o'q teshigi bor edi, - Mannok boshini ko'rsatdi. Mannok o'z kundaligiga yana bir tafsilotni qo'shdi, "kuzatuvchi o'tirgan qora tanli teriyer-o'lik". Men o'zimni qotil kabi his qilardim. " Shunga qaramay, u ertasi kuni boshqa DFWni nazoratdan o'tkazdi.

1917 yil iyul ko'p jihatdan Mannok uchun muhim bo'lar edi. U nafaqat o'zining birinchi aniq qotilligini, balki eskadronning sherigi, kapitan Jorj L. "Zulu" Lloyd bilan yakka tartibda gaplashib, bir necha kishilar uning jangovar ruhiga hali ham shubha qilishayotganini aytdi.

"Albatta, men o'z xohishimdan qo'rqardim - asabiy reaktsiya", dedi Mannok ochiqchasiga. "Men hozir bu jismoniy nuqsonni yengdim va o'zimni yengib, endi xunlarni mag'lub etaman. Havo bilan kurashish - bu fan. Men buni o'rganib chiqdim va beparvolik hisobidan xunlarni olmaganim uchun ortiqcha tashvishlanmadim ». Lloyd bu javobdan ko'proq mamnun edi. Ba'zi erkaklar Mannokning qobiliyatiga shubha qilishganda, bu hasadga berildi.


Mannokning nigohi nigohi Birinchi Jahon urushi asi ostidagi murakkab va qarama -qarshi shaxsiyatga ishora qiladi. (O'Brayen Braunning ruxsati bilan)

O'sha oydagi yana bir voqea Mannokka katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. 21-kuni u dahshat bilan qaradi: 2-leytenant F.V. Ruk, eskadronning yoqtirgan a'zosi, birinchi leytenant Adolfning hujumiga uchraganidan keyin olovga qulab tushdi. Ritter von Tutschek of Jasta 12. Maklanachan esladi, Mannok keyinchalik o'z kulbasiga kirib, unga nima bo'lgan obsesyon haqida gapirdi. "Ular meni oxirigacha shunday tutishadi - olov va tugatish", dedi Mannok ko'z yoshlari bilan. Keyin u nima uchun parvoz paytida xizmat revolverini olib yurishni boshlaganini tushuntirdi: "olovning birinchi belgisini ko'rsam, o'zimni tugatish uchun."

Ertasi kuni Mannok "juda yaxshi hujumkor ruhi va erdan kuchli o'q ostida past balandlikda dushmanga hujum qilgani uchun juda qo'rqmasligi uchun" harbiy xoch bilan taqdirlandi. RFK qo'mondoni general -mayor Xyu M. Trenchard hatto shaxsiy tabriklarini ham yubordi. Ko'p o'tmay, Mannok Parvoz rahbari etib saylandi.

Garchi mas'uliyatni o'z zimmasiga olish Mannokga osonlikcha kelmagan bo'lsa -da, hozirda uning reytingi keskin ko'tarildi. U ko'r -ko'rona ko'rdi va ajoyib zarba edi. Faqat avgust oyida unga to'rtta Albatros dvigateli va bitta DFW berilgan. 1917 yil oxiriga kelib, u o'z tasmasi ostida 15 ta tasdiqlangan g'alabani qo'lga kiritdi va o'z MCga Bar oldi. U ajoyib parvoz etakchisiga aylanib, jasorat bilan emas, taktika bilan kurashardi. U, shuningdek, hazil tuyg'usiga ega edi, u bir paytlar etakchining oqsoqollari uchun tayog'ida bir juft ayol ipak paypoq ishlatgan.

Mannok u bilan otalik rahm -shafqat va sabr -toqat bilan uchgan odamlarga qaradi va ularga muvaffaqiyatli jangovar uchuvchilar bo'lib etishishiga yordam berdi. Agar biror kishi o'ldirilgan bo'lsa, Mannok juda og'ir ish olib bordi, ko'pincha o'z kulbasiga jo'nab ketdi, yig'lab yig'ladi va qadimgi Irlandiyada bo'lgani kabi oldinga va orqaga silkitib motam tutdi. Garchi jang nemislarga nisbatan nafratini kuchaytirgan bo'lsa -da, u 4 sentyabr kuni DFWga o't qo'yganida isyon ko'tarildi. "Bu dahshatli manzara edi, - deb yozdi Mannok kundaligida, - va meni xastalab tashladim."

Ammo o'sha parvoz Mannokning ajoyib taktikasini ko'rsatdi. Kundaligida qayd etilganidek, u dastlab ikki kishilik milliy belgilarini taniy olmagan. "Shunday qilib, men dumimni unga qaratdim, - dedi Mannok, - va u ingliz bo'lsa, menga e'tibor bermaydi deb o'yladim va agar men xunni burnini qo'yib, otib oling (men uni ko'rmaganman deb o'ylayman). Hiyla yaxshi ishladi. Uning burni burildi (menga ishora qilib), men darrov qamchiladim, sho'ng'dim va siz "pichoq" deb aytolmaguningizcha uning orqasidan "kattalashtirdim". U burilishga harakat qildi, lekin u Nieuport uchun juda sekin edi. Men 50 burilish paytida qisqa burilishlarda yugurdim va u yonib ketdi ».

1917 yil 17 oktyabrda eskadron RFCning Britaniyada ishlab chiqarilgan yangi qiruvchi qirollik samolyotlar fabrikasi S.E.5a ni olganidan xursand bo'ldi. Bu kuchli Nieuportga qaraganda tezroq va qattiqroq kuchli samolyot edi. Uchuvchilar birinchi navbatda ularni yaxshi ko'rishardi, ayniqsa, ularning ikki qurollanishi-sinxronlashtirilgan Vikers pulemyoti va qanotli Lyuis-oxir-oqibat ularni nemislar bilan tenglashtirdi. Tez orada ular bu mashinada tishlar bilan bog'liq muammolar borligini, shu jumladan qurolning tiqilib qolishi va dvigatelning ishdan chiqishini bilib olishdi. Eskadron ikki haftalik davrda 20 dan ortiq shunday hodisalarga duch keldi.

Dekabrga kelib, 10 oylik uzluksiz havo janglaridan so'ng, Mannok eskirgan edi. Maklanachan uni tarang deb ta'riflagan va u tez -tez "havoda olov yoqish mavzusini ko'targanini" ta'kidlagan. 1918 yil 1 -yanvarda Mannok boshqa DFWni urib tushirdi va uni Angliyaga bort -trener sifatida xizmatga yuborishgani haqida xabar berishdi. O'sha oqshom, xayrlashuv marosimida, leytenant V. Duglas esladi, Mannok o'rnidan turib, "bizni o'zining ajoyib nutqlaridan biriga xushnud etdi", to'ng'ichlar do'zaxini berib, "bir yoki boshqa o'rtoqlari alangalanib yoki qulab tushishi haqida hazillar" bilan to'la edi. boshqa dahshatli tarzda " The commander of No. 40 Squadron, Major L.A. Tilney, wrote in the unit’s diary, “His leadership and general ability will never be forgotten by those who had the good fortune to serve under him.”

Back in England, Mannock was posted on February 2 to London Colney as a flight commander at No. 74 Squadron, which was in training. The unit was suffering from low morale, apparently due to unmotivated instructors. Mannock electrified the disheartened pilots. He was a natural teacher and a powerful speaker, and his lectures on aerial combat were always fully attended. “Gentlemen,” he told his men, “always above seldom on the same level never underneath.” His practical advice was priceless and would save lives at the front. “Don’t ever attempt to dog-fight a triplane on anything like equal terms as regards height,” he warned, “otherwise he will get on your tail and stay there until he shoots you down.” He also told his pilots never to follow a victim too close to the ground, because they might be hit by fire from the trenches.

To motivate his men, Mannock—much like a football coach—affected a “kill-all-the-bloody-Huns” persona that later gave birth to another hoary myth about his being a “Hun-hater,” which would have appalled him. In fact his diary reveals his respect for his opponents. Concerning a two-seater that escaped him in early September 1917, Mannock wrote, “He deserved to get away really, as he must have been a brave Hun.” In an earlier dogfight in which the British outnumbered the Germans 2-to-1 but could not bring one down, Mannock noted, “I shall always maintain an unsullied admiration for those Huns.” Major Keith L. “Grid” Caldwell, No. 74 Squadron’s New Zealand–born commanding officer, recalled that “Mick was a very human, sensitive sort of chap he did not hate people or things at all….I believe that this hatred was calculated or assumed to boost his own morale and that of the squadron in general.”

In April 1918, Mannock and No. 74 Squadron landed their S.E.5as at their new aerodrome in France, Clairmarais North. Mannock was eager to fight. Leading A Flight on April 12, he scored a double kill over Albatros D.Vs, the unit’s first victories. In the next three months or so, he would increase his victory list by an amazing 33, not counting those he did not claim or gave away to fellow pilots to pump up their self-confidence—a habit with him. Under his leadership, No. 74 came to be known as the “Tiger Squadron,” and his men reverently called him the “Iron Man.”

Mannock took it as his responsibility to protect the members of his flight and often guided them over the lines. “It was wonderful to be in his Flight” remembered one young pilot, “to him his Flight was everything and he lived for it. Every member had his special thought and care.” Mannock gave them vital advice on how best to deal with the enemy. “He placed gunnery before flying,” recalled Lieutenant Ira “Taffy” Jones, a close friend. “Good flying has never killed a Hun yet,” Mannock pointed out. Moreover, he would set up kills for inexperienced pilots. Lieutenant Henry E. Dolan related how Mannock had shot up a German two-seater and then “nodded at me to get it. I went down on the Hun’s tail and saw that Mick had killed the gunner, and I could attack safely.”

With his piercing blue eyes and his trademark affectations, a long-stemmed pipe and a cane, Mannock was famous along the front. He had, recalled Jones, “an intriguingly complex nature. It fluctuated so,” for Mannock could be ruthless as a fighter, boyish in the mess, harsh with his pilots’ mistakes, gentle and complimentary for good work, morbid when depressed. Once Mannock dived repeatedly on a crashed German two-seater, firing at the crew. Asked about this later, he growled, “The swines are better dead—no prisoners for me.”

On May 21, Mannock brought down four German planes—three Pfalz D.IIIs and a Hannover two-seater—and the next day was awarded the Distinguished Service Order. Before the month was out, he flamed eight new victims. After such victories, he would burst into the mess shouting, “Sizzle, sizzle, sizzle, wonk woof!” to boost morale. But privately he expressed darker thoughts. By the middle of June, Jones noticed that Mannock’s nerves were “noticeably fraying. He was now continually talking about being shot down in flames.” Writing to his sister, Mannock said, “I am supposed to be going on leave, (if I live long enough)….” He was fighting depression and plagued by dreams of burning aircraft.

On June 18, Mannock sailed home for leave in England. Upon his arrival he was informed that he had been promoted to major and given command of No. 85 Squadron, previously led by Canadian ace Major William A. “Billy” Bishop, and that he also had been awarded a Bar to his DSO. He reacted with indifference to the news.

After spending a brief but painful time with his mother, an alcoholic, Mannock went to stay with his friend Jim Eyles, who saw that he “had changed dramatically. Gone was the old sparkle we knew so well gone was the incessant wit. I could see him wring his hands together to conceal the shaking and twitching.” One day, as the time approached for Mannock to return to the war, “he started to tremble violently. This grew into a convulsive straining. He cried uncontrollably….His face, when he lifted it, was a terrible sight. Saliva and tears were running down his face he couldn’t stop it.” Given his condition, 31-year-old Mannock should never have been sent back to the front. But back he went.

Back in France again, Mannock took command of No. 85 Squadron on July 5, 1918, and his arrival was seen as a godsend. He immediately set to work teaching his new men about aerial tactics. Two days after his arrival he got two Fokker D.VIIs as his new squadron mates, infected by his enthusiasm, brought down an additional three. Within a matter of days, Mannock’s personality had completely transformed the unit. He threw himself into his work and even enjoyed a respite from the nightmares and depression. It would not last long.


Members of No. 85 Squadron who Mannock mentored to greater exploits included New Zealander Malcolm C. McGregor (11 victories, fifth from left) and Americans Lawrence K. Callahan (5 victories, seventh) and Elliott White Springs (12 victories, eighth). New Zealander Donald C. Inglis (sixth from right), the last man to see Mannock alive, afterward lamented­, “The bastards killed my major.” (IWM Q 12050)

On July 10, Mannock heard that his friend James McCudden had been killed in a flying accident, news that hurled Mannock back into depression but also spurred him to a furious killing spree. He shot down six aircraft between July 14 and 26. But he was also taking risks and ignoring his own teachings. Often he followed a victim down to spray the wreckage with bullets. He led his flights with rage and flew solo patrols in his hunt for Germans. Premonitions of death haunted him. In his last letter to his sister he wrote, “I feel that life is not worth hanging on to.” And Ira Jones found him unstable, noting: “One minute, he’s full out. The next he gives the impression of being morbid and keeps bringing up his pet subject of being shot down in flames.”

Early in the morning of July 26, 1918, Lieutenant Donald Inglis walked into the mess where Mannock was smoking his pipe and playing “Londonderry Air” on the gramophone. The two were to fly a morning patrol together. Earlier, Mannock had asked the rookie pilot, “Have you got a Hun yet, Inglis?” and to his negative answer replied, “Well come on out and we will get one.” Mannock told Inglis that they would hunt for a two-seater. Once it was located, Mannock would attack first, with Inglis coming in behind to finish the enemy off and thus get his first kill.

At 5:30 a.m. over Merville, Mannock dived on a two-seater at about 5,000 feet. He knocked out the observer and pulled away, letting Inglis come from underneath, firing into the gas tank. The German plane burst into flame, with the two S.E.5as very low over the ground. Violating his own teaching, Mannock circled the burning wreck twice. Then, as Inglis later wrote in his combat report, “I saw Mick start to kick his rudder and realized we were fairly low, then I saw a flame come out of the side of his machine it grew bigger and bigger. Mick was no longer kicking his rudder his nose dropped slightly, and he went into a slow right-hand turn round, about twice, and hit the ground in a burst of flame.” Mannock’s S.E.5a had been brought down by groundfire. Inglis’ plane was shot up, too, and he crash-landed in the British lines, sputtering: “The bastards killed my major. They killed Mick.”

It is impossible to know if Mannock shot himself as he had always threatened to do. Most likely, given the way his plane flew after he was hit, he was either wounded, unconscious or dead. In any event, some unknown German soldier buried the ace after first retrieving Mannock’s ID discs, pistol, notebook and other personal effects, which were returned to his family after the war. These items had all been on Mannock’s body, and they showed no signs of fire.

Back at the airfield, the awful news spread quickly. Jones scribbled in his diary: “26th July—Mick is dead. Everyone stunned. No one can believe it. I can write no more today. It is too terrible.”

In the years after the war, Eyles and others attempted to locate Mannock’s grave, which had been obliterated by shelling. Some researchers believe he lies in the grave of an unknown British aviator near La Pierre-au-Beure. In addition, his friends campaigned for him to be awarded Britain’s highest decoration, the Victoria Cross, which was conferred on July 18, 1919.

A final apocrypha is Mannock’s victory score, which most books give as 73—a number dreamed up by his admirers (above all Jones), many of whom disliked Billy Bishop, who finished the war with 72 kills. According to the most reliable estimates, Mannock brought down 61 enemy aircraft—not counting, of course, the many victories he gave away or did not claim—which makes him Britain’s second-highest scoring ace of the war.

Mannock’s deeply felt emotions, the immense fears and obstacles he faced and the manner in which he overcame them, his achievements, his unconventionality and his great promise all make him vividly human and bring home the tragedy of the lives lost in World War I. The way Mannock touched people was extraordinary. “I was awed by his personality,” wrote Maclanachan after first meeting Mannock. “He was idolized by all who came into intimate contact with him,” recalled another pilot. “He was a man among men,” added a third, while long after the war another remembered Mannock as “a warm, lovable individual of many moods and characteristics. I shall always salute his memory.”

O’Brien Browne writes from Heidelberg, Germany. Further reading: Mick: The Story of Major Edward Mannock, by James M. Dudgeon or Victoria Cross: WWI Airmen and Their Aircraft, by Alex Revell.

This article by O’Brien Browne was originally published in the July 2007 issue of Aviatsiya tarixi. For more great articles, subscribe to Aviatsiya tarixi bugun jurnal!


Begin by reading pages 71-72 in your text, Canada: Our Century, Our Story or

There were three major innovations in the technology of warfare introduced between 1914 and 1919. The introduction of the Lewis machine gun changed the way that battle was organized and the speed at which enemy soldiers could be killed. The Lewis machine gun was a light machine gun that only needed a single person to run it, though usually two soldiers were stationed to each gun. It replaced the much heavier and cumbersome Vickers gun. Not needing to reload the gun as often increased the rate at which the gun could be fired, subsequently increasing the rate at which soldiers were killed. This was particularly true as soldiers made the dangerous trek across No Man’s Land.

The first light single user machine gun was the Lewis gun. As seen in the photo, it could be easily used by a single soldier, although it was usually manned by two soldiers, and most soldiers in a platoon would be trained to fire it. The soldiers shown here are also wearing early forms of gas masks to protect themselves in the event of gas attack.

The introduction of poison gas in 1915 necessitated the issue of gas masks to soldiers, such as this one invented by Canadian Cluny Macpherson of Newfoundland. Shown here at left, is an early gas mask, developed by Newfoundland doctor Cluny Macpherson. The mask is a hood made of canvas with a metal helmet underneath, two eyepieces and a breathing tube.

The third major technological innovation was the introduction and refinement of the tank. The introduction of the tank was a significant first step towards modern mechanized warfare.