Ma `lumot

HMS Smiterning ko'rinishi


Havo qurollarini tashuvchi flot urushi, Kev Darling. Birinchi Jahon urushi paytida, Ikkinchi Jahon Urushigacha bo'lgan davrda, flot havo kemalarining samolyot tashuvchilarini ishlatishning to'liq tarixi, bu erda tashuvchilar dengiz flotining eng muhim kapital kemalariga aylangan Koreya urushi. Havo qurollari boshidan oxirigacha, Folklend urushi, tashuvchining ahamiyatini yana bir bor ta'kidladi va hozirgi "super tashuvchilar" ga qadar. [to'liq sharhni o'qing]


Xizmat tarixi

Xizmatga qabul qilinganidan so'ng, u dastlab 1990 yil 11 oktyabrgacha Qirollik dengiz zaxirasining Klayd bo'limida xizmat qildi. Keyin u Glazgo Universitetining Qirollik harbiy -dengiz bo'linmasiga (URNU) o'tdi. 2012 yil sentyabr oyida u Oksford universiteti qirollik harbiy -dengiz bo'linmasi o'quv kemasi bo'ldi. U HMSni almashtirdi Kuzatuvchi Faslane kuchlarini himoya qilish eskadroniga o'tgan bu rolda.

Oksford Universiteti Qirollik dengiz -dengiz bo'linmasi Angliya, Uels va Shotlandiyadagi etakchi universitetlarni qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan 14 ta URNUdan biridir. Tashkilotning vazifasi - "Qirollik dengiz flotining zarurati va roli to'g'risida yaxshiroq ma'lumot berish uchun jamiyatning bo'lajak etakchisi va fikrini shakllantiruvchi potentsialini namoyish etadigan, yuqori malakali magistrantlarning keng spektrini o'qitish" Xizmat ".

URNU talabalari kema bortida dengiz dam olish kunlari yoki dengiz kunlarida joylashish imkoniyatiga ega bo'ladilar, u erda besh kishidan iborat doimiy RN ekipajining ko'rsatmasi bo'yicha kemani boshqarish va boshqarishni o'rganadilar. Kema, shuningdek, har yili ikki marta, Pasxa va yozda joylashadi.


HMS Smiter (P272)

HMS Smiter bu Kamonchi-Britaniya qirollik flotining sinf patrul va o'quv kemasi.

Xizmatga qabul qilinganidan so'ng, u dastlab 1990 yil 11 oktyabrga qadar Qirollik dengiz zaxirasining Klayd bo'limida xizmat qildi. Keyin u Glazgo Universitetining Qirollik Harbiy -dengiz bo'linmasiga (URNU) o'tdi. 2012 yil sentyabr oyida u Oksford universiteti qirollik harbiy -dengiz bo'linmasi o'quv kemasi bo'ldi. U HMSni almashtirdi Kuzatuvchi Faslane kuchlarini himoya qilish otryadiga o'tgan bu rolda.

Oksford Universiteti Qirollik dengiz -dengiz bo'linmasi Angliya, Uels va Shotlandiyadagi etakchi universitetlarni qo'llab -quvvatlaydigan 14 ta URNUdan biridir. Tashkilotning vazifasi - "Qirollik dengiz flotining zarurati va roli to'g'risida yaxshiroq ma'lumot berish uchun jamiyatning bo'lajak etakchisi va fikrini shakllantiruvchi potentsialini namoyish etadigan, yuqori malakali magistrantlarning keng spektrini o'qitish" Xizmat ".

URNU talabalari kema bortida dengiz dam olish kunlari yoki dengiz kunlarida joylashish imkoniyatiga ega bo'ladilar, u erda besh kishidan iborat doimiy RN ekipajining ko'rsatmasi bo'yicha kemani boshqarish va boshqarishni o'rganadilar. Kema, shuningdek, har yili ikki marta, Pasxa va yozda joylashadi.


Fayl: HMS SMITER samolyot kemasida halokatga uchraganidan so'ng, dengiz osti kemasi, 1944 01.jpg

HMSO, Crown Copyrightsning amal qilish muddati butun dunyo bo'ylab amal qilishini e'lon qildi (qarang: HMSO elektron pochta orqali javob berish)
Qo'shimcha ma'lumot.

Bu teg har qanday takomillashtirish (masalan, yorqinlik, kontrast, ranglarni moslashtirish, aniqlik) yangi mualliflik huquqini yaratish uchun etarli darajada ijodiy emasligini tasdiqlash zarurati tug'ilganda foydalanish uchun mo'ljallangan. U biron -bir takomillashtirilganmi yoki yo'qligi noma'lum bo'lgan joylarda, shuningdek, takomillashtirish aniq, ammo etarli bo'lmagan hollarda ishlatilishi mumkin. Ma'lumki, aniq bo'lmagan kengaytirilmagan skanerlar uchun tegishli <> o'rniga teg qo'ying. Foydalanish uchun Commons-ga qarang: PD-skanerlash yorlig'i qachon ishlatiladi.


Tarkibi

Xizmatga qabul qilinganidan so'ng, u dastlab 1990 yil 11 oktyabrgacha Qirollik dengiz zaxirasining Klayd bo'limida xizmat qildi. Keyin u Glazgo Universitetining Qirollik harbiy -dengiz bo'linmasiga (URNU) o'tdi. 2012 yil sentyabr oyida u Oksford universiteti qirollik harbiy -dengiz bo'linmasining o'quv kemasi bo'ldi. U HMS   ni almashtirdiKuzatuvchi Faslane kuchlarini himoya qilish eskadroniga o'tgan bu rolda.

2017 yil iyun oyida, Smiter, HM Ships bilan birgalikda Kamonchi, Ranger va Ekspluatatsiya qilishNATO BALTOPS mashqlarida ishtirok etish uchun Boltiqbo'yiga yuborilgan, P2000 qirollik dengiz floti bunday mashg'ulotda birinchi marta qatnashgan. Α ]


HMS QUEEN tarixi

1943 yil 12 martda Sietl-Tacoma kemasozlik kompaniyasi Tacoma, Vashington tomonidan C3-S-A1 tipidagi yuk tashuvchi, 260-sonli Dengiz komissiyasi korpusi, AQSh harbiy-dengiz kuchlari tomonidan USS sifatida sotib olingan 44-sonli Sietl-Takoma korpusi. ST. ANDREWS ACV -49 (CVE -49 ga o'zgartirildi, 1943 yil 15 -iyul). U 31 -iyul kuni homiysi Robert W. Morz xonim tomonidan ishga tushirilgan. Hali qurilayotganda, CVE 49 samolyot tashuvchisi sifatida ishini tugatgandan so'ng, Admiraltiga kreditga o'tkazilishi to'g'risida qaror qabul qilingan edi.

O'qishni tugatgandan so'ng, u AQSh dengiz flotiga USS sifatida topshirildi Sent -Endryus 1943 yil 7 -dekabr, va shu kuni Qirollik dengiz flotiga o'tkazildi, RMS xizmatiga HMS sifatida ishga tushirildi MALIKA (D19), kapitan K.J. Buyruqda D 'Arcy RN. U bu nomni olgan oltinchi kema edi.

Dengiz sinovlari tugagandan so'ng Malika Britaniya Kolumbiyasining Vankuver shahriga jo'nab, Vankuverdagi Burrard Drydokka kirib, uskunalarni RN standartlariga moslashtirishni va uni ish tashlash/CAP tashuvchisi sifatida jihozlashni boshladi. Tugatgandan so'ng, u Panama kanali bo'ylab suzib ketdi, Mayami shahrida ikki hafta to'xtab, Norfolkga (Virjiniya) suzib ketdi. 1944 yil 6 -mayda u Norfolkdan Buyuk Britaniyaga o'tish uchun 855 eskadroning 12 ta Avenger II samolyotini ishga tushirdi. Eskadron 31 may kuni RAF Xokingga tushdi. HMS Malika Urush oxirida rus konvoylari uchun eskort bo'lib xizmat qilgan, 1945 yil 5 -noyabrda Norvegiyada Germaniya kemalariga qilingan ish tashlashda qatnashgan. Shuningdek, u yuk tashuvchi sifatida ishlaydi.

HMS Malika 1945 yilda Tinch okeanida xizmat qilgani uchun R320 vimballi raqami berilgan, lekin Britaniya Sharqiy Hind floti bilan ishlagan. Keyinchalik u urushdan keyin harbiy kemalarga aylantirilgan, sobiq harbiy asirlarni Evropadan Avstraliya va Gonkongga olib boradigan oltita CVEdan biri sifatida ishga joylashdi.

Uning birinchi qo'shinli yurishi Buyuk Britaniyaning Fremantle va Sidneyga aylanib o'tish yo'li bo'lib, Yangi Zelandiyaliklarga to'la kema va Avstraliya Qirollik flotidan tashkil topgan kichik odamlardan iborat edi. U 1945 yil 16 -dekabrda Kolombodan chiqib ketganidan ko'p o'tmay buzildi va ta'mirlash uchun portga qaytishga majbur bo'ldi, ertasi kuni yana Fremantlega jo'nab ketdi.

HMS QUEEN 1946 yil yanvarda Kolombo -Harborda Barracuda korpuslarini yuklamoqda. HMS PATROLLER uning orqasida. Samolyot dengizga tashlanish uchun mo'ljallangan. Foto: Lesli Xollett kolleksiyasidan

Buyuk Britaniyaga qaytish chog'ida, u 1946 yil 25 -yanvarda Kolombo shahriga (Fremantl shahridan) keldi, u qutbli torpedalar, keraksiz samolyotlar, samolyot dvigatellari va boshqa zaxiralarni yuklash uchun, Seylon qirg'og'ining dengizida. Buyuk Britaniyada o'z faoliyatini tugatgandan so'ng, 1946 yil 26 -martda Kolombo shahriga etib kelgan Avstraliyaga safarini takrorladi va 1 -aprel kuni suzib ketdi qaytish oyog'i.

Norfolkdagi AQSh dengiz flotiga qaytdi. Virjiniya va HMS 'Malika1946 yil 31 -oktabrda Qirollik Harbiy -dengiz floti tomonidan xizmatdan bo'shatildi. 1947 yil 22 -yanvarda u tashlab yuborilgan va NV Stoomv, Maats, Nederland Co., Amsterdam, Gollandiyaga sotilgan va sotilgan. 1947 yil 29 -iyul. 1967 yilda Filippin Presidents Line Inc kompaniyasi tomonidan sotib olingan va uning nomi 'Prezident Markos '. Keyinchalik 1972 yilda kema to'sarlariga etkazib berish uchun "Lucky One" deb nomlandi. 1972 yilda Tayvanda yo'q qilingan.

Bu kemalar tarixi haqida to'liq ma'lumot kelgusida qo'shiladi.


HMS SMITER

Ning hozirgi holati HMS SMITER ichida Bristol kanali koordinatalari bilan 51.49069° / -2.75947° haqida xabar berilganidek 2021-06-22 14:11 AIS tomonidan bizning kemani kuzatuvchi ilovasiga. Kemaning hozirgi tezligi 0 tugun va hozirda port ichida PORTISHEAD.

Kema HMS SMITER (MMSI: 235009950) - bu Harbiy operatsiyalar Bayrog'i ostida suzmoqda [GB] Buyuk Britaniya.

Bu sahifada siz kemalarning hozirgi holati, oxirgi marta aniqlangan port qo'ng'iroqlari va joriy sayohat haqidagi ma'lumotlarni topishingiz mumkin. Agar kemalar AIS tomonidan qamrab olinmagan bo'lsa, siz oxirgi manzilni topasiz.

Ning hozirgi holati HMS SMITER AIS qabul qiluvchilarimiz tomonidan aniqlanadi va biz ma'lumotlarning ishonchliligi uchun javobgar emasmiz. Oxirgi pozitsiya kema bizning kuzatuv ilovamizning Ais qabul qiluvchilari tomonidan qamrab olingan paytda qayd etilgan.

Joriy loyihasi HMS SMITER AIS xabar berishicha 1,8 metr


Dizayn va tavsif

Bu kemalarning barchasi katta edi va Amerikaning oldingi eskort tashuvchilariga qaraganda katta samolyot sig'imiga ega edi. Ularning hammasi savdo kemalari emas, balki eskort tashuvchi sifatida joylashtirilgan. [1] Barcha kemalar 646 kishidan iborat bo'lib, umumiy uzunligi 492 va 160 futli 3 va 160 dyuymli (150,0 va 160 metrli), 69 va 160 futli 6 va 160 dyuymli (21,2 va 160 metrli) va 25 dyuymli qoralama edi. #160ft va#1606 va#160in (7.8 va 160m). [1] Harakatni bitta val, ikkita qozon va 9350 ot kuchiga (SHP) ega bug 'turbinasi ta'minladi, bu kemani 16,5 tugun (30,6 va 160 km/soat 19.0 va 160 mil) tezlikda harakatlantira oladi. [2]

Samolyot inshootlari - bu svetofor tomonidagi kichik birlashgan ko'prik - parvoz boshqaruvi, 43 ta (13,1 va 160 m) balandlikdagi 34 ta (10,4 va 160 m) balandlikdagi ikkita samolyot, bitta samolyot katapulti va to'qqiz tutqich simlari. [1] Samolyotlar parvoz maydonchasi ostidagi 260 fut (79,2 va 160 metr) 62 fut (18,9 va 160 metr) angarlarda joylashishi mumkin edi. [1] Qurol-yarog 'quyidagilardan iborat: bitta va to'rtta ikkita 4 va 160 dyuymli ikkita maqsadli qurol, o'n ikkita 40 va 160 millimetrli Bofors ikkita zenit quroli va 20 va 160 millimetrli Oerlikon zenit qurollari. [1] Ular maksimal yigirma to'rtta samolyot sig'imiga ega edilar, ular Grumman Martlet, Vought F4U Corsair yoki Hawker Sea Hurricane qiruvchi samolyotlari va Fairey Swordfish yoki Grumman Avenger suv osti kemalariga qarshi samolyotlarning aralashmasi bo'lishi mumkin edi. [1]


Qirollik dengiz flotining faol kemalari ro'yxati

Qirollik floti - Britaniya Qurolli Kuchlarining harbiy -dengiz xizmatining asosiy bo'linmasi. 2019 yil sentyabr holatiga ko'ra, Qirollik dengiz flotida 75 ta foydalanishga topshirilgan kema bor. Ishga tushirilgan kemalardan yigirma ikkitasi asosiy er usti jangchilari (oltita boshqariladigan raketa qiruvchi, o'n uch fregat, ikkita amfibiya transport doki va bitta samolyot tashuvchisi) va o'ntasi yadroviy suv osti kemalari (to'rtta ballistik raketa suv osti kemasi va oltita flot suv osti kemasi). Harbiy-dengiz kuchlarida o'n uchta minaga qarshi kemalar, yigirma uchta patrul kemalari, to'rtta tadqiqot kemalari, bitta muzqaymoq va ikkita tarixiy harbiy kemalar mavjud. G'alaba va Bristol.

Qirollik dengiz floti uchta bazani boshqaradi, bunda kemalar HMNB Portsmut, HMNB Devonport va HMNB Klaydga asoslangan. Bundan tashqari, Buyuk Britaniyaning turli joylarida Universitet Qirollik Harbiy -dengiz bo'linmalari (URNU) ga tegishli bo'lgan bir qator buyurtma kemalar joylashgan. Qirollik dengiz flotining umumiy almashinuvi taxminan 407,000 tonnani tashkil etadi (641,000 tonna Qirollik flotining yordamchi va qirol dengiz piyodalari qo'shilgan).

Qirollik flotidan tashqari, Qirollik flotining yordamchi va qirollik dengiz piyodalari qirollik dengiz flotining aktivlarini to'ldiruvchi o'z flotilalarini boshqaradilar, ammo ular bu ro'yxatga yoki yuqoridagi raqamlarga kiritilmagan. Bundan tashqari, harbiy -dengiz kemalari Brecon va Cromer Qirollik dengiz floti sohilidagi HMS   qirg'oq korxonasida joylashganRali va Britannia Qirollik Dengiz kolleji, P1000 va Motor Whalers bilan birga. Ώ ] ΐ ] Buyuk qirollik Dengiz xizmatining yordamchi kontingenti sifatida Qirollik dengiz floti va Qirollik flotining yordamchi operatsiyalarini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun fuqarolik dengiz xizmatlari ko'plab yordamchi kemalarni (shu jumladan qirg'oq logistikasi, arqon va tadqiqot kemalarini) boshqaradi. Α ]

Hozirgi vaqtda Qirollik floti bilan ishlayotgan barcha kemalar va suv osti kemalari Buyuk Britaniyada qurilgan, muzqaymoqdan tashqari. Himoyachi Norvegiyada qurilgan va tadqiqot kemasi Magpie U asosan Irlandiyada qurilgan. Qirollik dengiz flotining barcha kemalarida qirolicha kema uchun "HMS" kema prefiksi mavjud.


HMS Smiterning ko'rinishi - tarix

Ikkinchi jahon urushidan keyingi davr - zamonaviy hisoblar

HMS AMETHYST INCIDENT, YANGTSE RIVER, 1949 yil apreldan maygacha

Bu Yangtse daryosidagi HMS Ametist hodisasiga qisqacha kirish, u kommunistik kuchlar tomonidan o'zini va uni qutqarishga uringan kemalarni katta yo'qotishlar bilan o'qqa tutgan. London gazetasida berilgan mukofotlar ro'yxati berilgan, ammo rasmiy jo'natish bo'lmagan. O'z o'rnida, Hansardda yozilgan Jamoatlar palatasi ishi keltirilgan. Ular qo'mondonlikni olish uchun Keran komandiri kelguniga qadar voqealarni batafsil yoritadi. Uning shaxsiy hisobi - "Dengiz sharhi" dan - hikoya u qochib, flotga qaytguncha davom etadi.

Rasmlarning manbai, agar boshqacha izoh bo'lmasa, Photo Ships. Xaritalarning manbalari ko'rsatilgan. Hammaga rahmat.

Bu hisob bilan bog'liq muammo shundaki, 1940-1950 yillarda ishlatilgan joylar nomi endi ishlatilmayapti. Hozirgi xitoy nomlarining ko'pchiligi aniqlangan, ikkita istisno va Google xaritasida farqlar qayd etilgan. Hali ham daryoning o'zi haqida savol bor. Yangtsidagi ingliz qurolli qayiqlarining jurnallarini tahrir qilgan "Old Weather of Old Weather" loyihasida 20 ga yaqin inglizcha variantlar ro'yxati keltirilgan. Manbalarga ko'ra, bu holda Yangtse ham, Yangtse ham ishlatilgan.

Hansard parlament ishi (o'ngda)

HMS Ametist (leytenant-qo'mondon Skinner) 19-aprel kuni Shanxaydan Nankingdagi HMS Consortni yengillashtirish uchun jo'nab ketdi. 20 -da, soat 0900 atrofida, Nankingdan 60 mil uzoqlikda va Rouz oroliga katta talofatlar bilan otilgan, 60 ga yaqin ekipaj qo'ndi va ko'plari Xitoy yordami bilan Shanxayga yo'l olishdi.

Consort Nankingdan ametistga yordam berishni buyurdi Qora oqqush Shanxaydan ametistdan 40 mil narida, Kiang Yinga. Consort 1500 ga yaqin keldi, lekin qattiq urdi (20 -chi) va ametistni ushlab tura olmadi. Pastki oqimda davom etdi. HMS London 2000 -yillarda Yangtse bo'ylab yurishni va Kyan Yinda Qora oqqush va Konsort bilan uchrashishni buyurdi. Konsort juda shikastlangan va Shanxayga buyurtma bergan.

21 -c0200 da Ametist qaytdi va Rouz orolidan ikki mil balandlikda langar tashladi. Ertalab London va Qora oqqush Ametistni yopishga harakat qilishdi, lekin kuchli o'qqa tutilishdi, ular qaytarildi va qurbonlar bor edi. Ikkala kema ham Kyan Yinga qaytib keldi va u erda yana o'q uzildi. Shikastlanib, ko'proq qurbonlar bilan ular Shanxayga yo'l olishdi. O'sha kuni kechqurun dengiz ofitseri va RAF shifokori Sanderlend qayig'i bilan Ametistga etib kelishdi.

21 -dan 22 -aprelga o'tar kechasi Ametist ko'proq yaradorlarni evakuatsiya qildi va ko'proq evakuatsiya qilish uchun daryodan o'n mil nariga ko'tarildi. Uning bortida uchta dengiz ofitseri, bitta RAF shifokori, 52 reyting va 8 xitoylik bor edi. 22-kuni, Bosh vazir, Lt-Cdr Kerans, Nankindagi harbiy-dengiz attaşesi buyruqni qabul qilish uchun keldi. Shuningdek, 22 -kuni "Sanderlend" tomonidan yana qo'nishga urinishdi, lekin uni artilleriya o'qi haydab yubordi. Ametist daryodan yana to'rt mil nariga ko'tarildi.

U u erda uch oy qolib, 30/31 -iyulga o'tar kechasi qochib ketdi. HMS Concord bu vaqtda mavjud edi.

Yangtsi daryosi va Xitoy - bu xarita bundan 30 yil oldin sodir bo'lgan "Wahnsein hodisasi" uchun tayyorlangan. Ametist haqidagi hikoya Nanking va Shanxay o'rtasida bo'lib o'tdi


Yangtse daryosi Nankingdan Shanxaygacha va Egar orollariga
(Google)

ASOSIY KEMALAR HAZIRLANADI VA RASMLARI

(ba'zi kema tarixiga havolalar bilan, asosan Ikkinchi Jahon urushi)

Og'ir kreyser - London
Vayronkorlar - Konkord, Konsort
"Ametist", "Qora oqqush" fregatlari


HMS Ametist (dengiz floti rasmlari)


HMS Consort


HMS London
chiroyli uchta voronka County-sinf rekonstruksiya


"Hodisa" dan keyin HMS Ametist

Quyidagi rasmlar va ularning taglavhalari Maritime Quest tomonidan berilgan. To'liq to'plamga o'tish uchun bu erni bosing



"1949 yil 27-aprel: HMS Amethyst F-116 ekipaji Yangtsi hodisasi paytida Rouz orolida tuzoqqa tushib qolgan paytda ko'rilgan. Bayroqdagi jangga zarar etkazilganiga e'tibor bering." Ekipaj nomlarini Maritime Quest -da topish mumkin.




GIFFORD, Raymond G, Stoker mexanikasi, D/KX 134757, o'ldirildi
GURNEY, D/JX 126455 bosh xodimi Moris J o'ldirildi
HUTTON, Kristofer N D, qodir dengizchi, P/SSX 660881, o'ldirildi
IREDALE, Dennis, oddiy telegrafchi, P/SSX 660921, o'ldirilgan
JENKINSON, Sidney, oddiy dengizchi, D/SSX 840980, DOW
MOIR, Uilyam, etakchi dengizchi, D/JX 150273, DOW
MORTON, Albert, kichik ofitser, D/JX 161232, o'ldirilgan
THEAY, D/SSX 852996, oddiy dengizchi Charlz V o'ldirildi
TOBIN, Jon, elektrchi do'sti, D/MX 844428, o'ldirildi

ARKELL, Jeyms X, etakchi dengizchi, C/JX 804754, o'ldirildi
ELLWOOD, Artur V, Qodir dengizchi, C/JX 371567, o'ldirilgan
FOLEY, Jeyms P, Qodir dengizchi, D/JX 552734, o'ldirilgan
XARRISON, Edgar G Vt, aktyor/qodir dengizchi, C/JX 174555, o'ldirilgan
JARVIS, Lawrence H V, Marine, CH/X 43488, o'ldirildi
JONES, Sidney O, oddiy dengizchi, C/SSX 818150, o'ldirilgan
LANE, Jon S, oddiy dengizchi, C/SSX 815537, o'ldirildi
PULLIN, Uilyam G, qudratli dengizchi, C/JX 319158, o'ldirilgan
ROPER, Alek B, kichik ofitser, C/JX 153283, o'ldirilgan
SHELTON, Garri, Qodir dengizchi, C/SSX 818928, o'ldirildi
STOWERS, Patrik J, bosh mansabdor yozuvchi, P.MX 59958, o'ldirildi
Uolsingem, Stenli V A, oddiy dengizchi, C/SSX 661463, o'ldirildi
(Eslatma: yuqoridagi ro'yxatda jami 12 kishi halok bo'lgan, 23 -da bitta dengizchi DOW bor, yana ikkita ekipaj keyinchalik DOW)

QISH, Jorj, oddiy dengizchi, D/SSX 818706, DOW

WARWICK, Geoffrey G, oddiy dengizchi, C/JX 820226, DOW

FISHER, Uilyam, dengiz piyodalari, PO/X 3600, DOW

GRIS-XUTCHINSON, Charlz R, leytenant qo'mondoni, DOW

BRITANIYA HURMATLARI va MUKOFOTLARI

London gazetasining 38604 -sonida yozilgan 1949 yil 6 -may

Shoh Nankingga borishda HMS AMETHYST Xitoy harbiy kuchlari tomonidan o'qqa tutilganida, ajoyib xizmatlari uchun quyidagi mukofotlarni tasdiqlashdan mamnun edi.

Xizmat ko'rsatuvchi xoch uchun bar

Leytenant Jefri Li VESTON, SSSR Qirollik floti,
jasorat va burchga sodiqlik uchun. Xavfli yaralangan bo'lsa -da, u qo'mondon vafotidan keyin, HMS AMETHYST buyrug'ini bajarishni davom ettirdi va 56 soatdan keyin uning buyrug'idan ozod qilindi. U yengillik to'g'risida buyruq berilgunga qadar kemasini tark etishdan bosh tortdi.

Telegrafchi Jek Leonard FRANSA, D/JX 671532,
burchga bo'lgan sadoqati uchun. 21 -aprel kuni erta tongda u HMS AMETHYSTda qolgan yagona telegrafchi edi va shu vaqtdan boshlab uning harakatlari kemani tashqi dunyo bilan deyarli uzluksiz aloqada ushlab turdi. U bir damli uyqusiz, uzluksiz va uxlamay, dam olish vaqtini belgilashdan oldin ancha vaqt davomida hayotiy simsiz xabarlarni aniqlik va tezlik bilan qabul qilib, uzatdi.

O'limdan keyingi eslatmalar

Leytenant-qo'mondon Bernard Morland SKINNER, Qirollik floti,
HMS AMETHYST buyrug'iga yarador bo'lgunga qadar juda jasorat va burchga sodiqlik uchun.

"Xizmat ko'rsatgani uchun" ordeni sohibi bo'lish.

London gazetasining 38751 sonida yozilgan , 1949 yil 1 -noyabr

O'limdan keyingi eslatmalar


Qo'mondon Kerens aktyor Richard Todd bilan
(PegasusArchive.org/Mark Hickman)

1957 yilda "Yangtse hodisasi" nomli ajoyib film chiqdi, u erda bo'lganlar voqealarni haqiqiy tasviri sifatida qabul qilinganga o'xshaydi. Ametist aslida o'z rolini o'ynash uchun zaxiradan chiqarilgan. Meysonning so'zlariga ko'ra, u filmni suratga olish paytida portlovchi moddaga mahkum bo'lgan va uni ishlatishdan olib tashlashga to'g'ri kelgan. Vikipediya ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, uning asosiy dvigatellari ishlamay qolgan va HMS Magpie shlyuzi u ketayotgan paytda sahnalarda turgan.

Britaniyalik aktyor Richard Todd qo'mondon Kerans rolini o'ynadi, u o'zining jangovar filmidagi rolini tavsiflab berdi. Ammo keyin bu haqiqiy tajribaga asoslangan edi. 7-parashyut batalonining kapitani sifatida u Germaniyaning qarshi hujumlaridan himoyalanish uchun D-kuni Pegas ko'prigi yaqiniga tushib ketdi.

Hazratlarim, janoblar kemalari Yangtse daryosida (Yangtse Kiang) qanday sharoitda o'qqa tutilganligi to'g'risida bayonot berish uchun aralashish uchun sizdan Rabbimdan ruxsat so'rayman. Bu bayonot hozirda Bosh vazir boshqa joyda qilgan bayonotga o'xshaydi.

Uy, Jantse daryosida, qirollari va vayronagarchiliklari bilan, qirolicha kemalari qanday sharoitda o'qqa tutilgani haqida to'liq ma'lumotga ega bo'lishni xohlaydi. Avval Xitoyda fuqarolar urushi borasida bizning pozitsiyamiz qandayligini tushuntirib beraman. Bu Uyda bizning siyosatimiz Buyuk Britaniya, AQSh va Sovet Ittifoqi Xitoyning ichki ishlariga aralashmaslik siyosatini e'lon qilgan 1945 yil dekabrdagi Moskva deklaratsiyasi bilan tartibga solinganligi bir necha bor ta'kidlangan. Buyuk Britaniyaning Xitoyga bo'lgan katta qiziqishlarini va katta ingliz jamoalari borligini inobatga olgan holda, Buyuk Britaniya hukumati bir necha oy oldin janoblari elchisi va janobining Xitoydagi konsullik xodimlari o'z lavozimlarida qolishi to'g'risida qaror qabul qilishdi va bu palataga e'lon qilindi. Mening to'g'ri hurmatli do'stim Tashqi ishlar vaziri. 9 dekabr. Nankingda qolish qarorida biz yolg'iz emasdik. Sovet Ittifoqidan tashqari, boshqa vakolatli davlatlar ham xuddi shunday qarorga kelishdi va o'shandan beri Nankingdagi diplomatik korpus a'zolari o'rtasida to'liq maslahatlashuvlar o'tkazildi.

So'nggi oylarda buzilgan sharoitda, turli kuchlarning harbiy kemalari Shanxay va Nankingda bo'lishdi, shuning uchun harbiy harakatlar natijasida tartib va ​​tartib buzilgan taqdirda, ular o'z fuqarolarini evakuatsiya qilishga yordam berishlari mumkin edi. . Xitoy hukumati Kantonga ko'chib o'tishga qaror qilganida, Yangtsidagi harbiy kemalar haqida ogohlantirish berilgani rost. Shunga qaramay, o'sha paytdan boshlab bizning harbiy kemalarimizning Yangtsedagi harakatlari Xitoy milliy hukumatining to'liq bilimi va roziligi bilan amalga oshgani haqiqatdir. Men shuni aytmoqchimanki, men aytmoqchi bo'lgan voqea sodir bo'lganida, H.M.S. "Ametist" uning qonuniy marosimlarini davom ettirdi va Oliy Majlisi hukumati uning harakatlarini xabardor qilish majburiyatiga ega bo'lgan boshqa vakolatli vakolat yo'qligini aytdi.

Palata kommunistik hokimiyat bilan bog'lanish uchun Xitoyda bizning hukumatimiz tomonidan qandaydir choralar ko'rilganligini bilishni xohlaydi. Kommunistik kuchlar Mukden, Pekin va Tientsinni bosib olgandan keyin, biz konsullik idoralari bo'lgan vaqt o'tdi. Bu lavozimlardagi janobi oliylarining konsullik xodimlari bir muncha vaqt mahalliy hokimiyat bilan kunlik ish kelishuvlarini tuzishga harakat qilishgan. Biroq, ularning yondashuvlari har safar rad etilgan, bunday rad etish uchun hech qanday sabab ko'rsatilmagan. Xuddi shu siyosat, voqea yuz berganda, "ametist" haqidagi oliy hazratlarining Pekindagi konsulining maktubini rad etishda ham kuzatilgan.

Nankingda qolish qaroriga binoan, qirolicha kemalari o'tgan bir necha oy davomida muntazam ravishda bir -birlarini portda bo'shatib turishgan. Shu munosabat bilan H.M.S. "Ametist" H.M.S.ni engillashtirishi kerak edi. Nankingdagi "Consort". Qarama -qarshi Xitoy kuchlari Yangtse qirg'og'ida uzoq vaqt to'plangan edi va bir necha hafta mobaynida kommunistlar daryodan o'tmoqchi bo'lgani haqida mish -mishlar tarqaldi. H.M.S. "Konsortsium" yengillik uchun allaqachon kechikkan edi, lekin bu yordam kommunistlarning 12 aprelda tugashi kerak bo'lgan ultimatumini hisobga olgan holda qoldirildi va keyinchalik Yangtse kesishmasidan o'tishi mumkin edi. 12 aprelda janobi oliylari elchisi ultimatum 15 aprelga qadar uzaytirilganini bildi, shuning uchun yengillik hali ham qoldirilishi kerak edi. Ultimatumning yakuniy muddati 21 aprelda kommunistik kuchlar tomonidan Yangtse kesib o'tilishiga olib kelishi mumkinligi faqat 18 aprelda ma'lum bo'ldi. "Consort" imkon qadar tezroq qoldi. U Nankingda uzoq vaqt qolgandan so'ng, etkazib bera olmasdi va har qanday holatda ham, bu portda joylashadigan qiruvchiga qaraganda, fregat mosroq deb hisoblanardi.

Bayroq xodimi, janobi oliylari elchisining roziligi bilan, "ametist" ning Nankingga etib borishiga, kommunistlarning oxirgi ultimatumi tugashidan yigirma to'rt soat oldin aniq bo'lishi kerak, deb qaror qildi. Agar hech qanday hodisa bo'lmaganida, "Ametist" 20 -aprelda Nankingga etib kelgan bo'lardi. Bu ma'lum faktlar asosida "Ametist" ning suzib ketishi to'g'risida qaror qabul qilindi va bu qaror mening fikrimcha to'g'ri edi.

Shunday qilib, 19 -aprel, seshanba kuni erta, fregat H.M.S. "Ametist" (leytenant-qo'mondon Skinner) Shanxaydan Nankingga jo'nab ketdi, u erda oq lavha va Union Jek kiyib, uning korpusiga Union Jack tushgan edi. "Ametist" Nankingdan oltmish mil narida, Yangtse daryosiga etib kelganida, Xitoy vaqti bilan soat to'qqizlarda, 20 -kuni ertalab, u shimoliy sohilidagi batareyalardan kuchli o'qqa tutildi, katta zarar ko'rdi va qurbonlar va oxir -oqibat Rose oroliga (Leigong Dao) joylashdi. Shundan so'ng, kapitan o'z ekipajining oltmishga yaqinini, shu jumladan qirg'oqqa suzish yoki samanlarda, o'qqa tutilgan va pulemyotda otilgan yaradorlarini qo'nishga qaror qildi. Biz bilamizki, katta qismi Xitoy yordami bilan Shanxayga kelgan.

Vitse-admiral Madden, Uzoq Sharq qo'mondonligining ikkinchi bayrog'i ofitseri H.M.S. Nankingdan "Consort" (qo'mondon Robertson) "Ametist" yordamiga borish uchun va fregat H.M.S. "Qora oqqush" (kapitan Jey) Shanxaydan Kiang Yinga, "Ametist" dan qirq mil narida. "Consort" "Ametist" ga kunduzi soat uchlarda etib keldi va shu zahotiyoq qattiq shug'ullanishdi. U olovni "Ametist" ga yaqinlasha olmaydigan darajada kuchli deb topdi va shuning uchun uni daryodan tez o'tib ketdi. U ikki mil pastroqqa burilib, uni olib ketish uchun yana "Ametist" ni yopdi. Ammo u yana shunday kuchli olovga duch keldi, u urinishdan voz kechishga majbur bo'ldi, garchi u qirg'oq batareyalariga to'liq qurollanishi bilan javob bersa va muxolifatning ko'p qismini o'chirib tashlaganini bildirsa. Yarim soat o'tgach, uning signallari to'xtadi, lekin u "ametist" ni qaytarishga urinib ko'rdi, lekin yana pastga qarab burildi. Bu urinish ham muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi va u boshqa zarar va qurbonlarga duch keldi, bu vaqt davomida uning boshqaruvi ta'sirlandi. Shuning uchun u otish maydonidan pastda davom etishi kerak edi.

Bu orada kreyser H.M.S. "London" (kapitan Kazalet) qo'mondonlik bayrog'i ofitserining ikkinchi bayrog'ini kiyib, Yangtse tomon ham eng yuqori tezlikda ketayotgan edi. "London", "Qora oqqush" va "Konsort" uchta kemasi o'sha kuni kechqurun sakkizda Kiang Yinda (Tszyanzin deb taxmin qilinadi) uchrashishdi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, "Consort" jiddiy shikastlangan, unga Shanxayga o'lik va yaradorlarni qo'ndirish va ta'mirlash ishlarini olib borish buyurilgan. 21 -kuni ertalab soat ikkilarda "Ametist" o'z kuchlari bilan o'zini qaytara oldi va Rouz orolidan ikki mil balandlikda langar tashladi. U boshqa keta olmadi, chunki uning xaritasi buzilgan edi. Uning korpusi bir necha joydan teshilgan, kapitani og'ir yaralangan, birinchi leytenanti yaralangan va shifokori o'ldirilgan. Faqat to'rtta yaroqsiz ofitser va bitta simsiz aloqani amalga oshirish uchun bitta telegraf qoldi.

O'sha kuni ertalab "London" va "Qora oqqush" "Ametist" ni yopishga harakat qilishdi, lekin kuchli olov bilan uchrashib, ba'zi odamlarni qurbon qildilar. Yong'in, albatta, qaytarildi, ammo Bayroq xodimi, "London" va "Qora oqqush" ni buyurgan barcha kemalarda jiddiy halok bo'lmagan holda, buzilgan "Ametist" daryosidan tushirish mumkin emas deb qaror qildi. "Kiang Yinga qaytish. Kiang Yinda ular batareyalar bilan o'qqa tutildi, katta talofatlar va zarar ko'rdi. Ikkala kema ham Shanxayga o'lik va yaradorlarni qo'ndirish va ta'mirlash ishlarini olib borishdi.

O'sha kuni tushdan keyin harbiy -dengiz kuchlari va qirollik harbiy -havo kuchlarining shifokori, tibbiy asbob -uskunalar va jadvallar bilan, Qirollik havo kuchlarining Sunderland samolyoti bilan "Ametist" ga olib ketishdi. Samolyot ham, "Ametist" ham o'qqa tutilgan. Kema urildi, ammo "Sanderlend" R.A.F. uchishdan oldin shifokor va ba'zi tibbiy buyumlar. Keyin "Ametist" daryo bo'yida boshpana topdi.

21-dan 22-tunga o'tar kechasi "Ametist" yaradorlarining navbatdagi partiyasini yaqin atrofdagi shaharga evakuatsiya qilishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Shundan so'ng, u qirg'oqdan miltiq o'qi ostida bo'lsa -da, qorong'ilik ostida daryo bo'yida o'n mil nariga ko'tarildi va yana langar tashladi, so'ngra og'ir jarohat olganlarning hammasini, shu jumladan kapitanini ham qo'ndirdi. Afsus bilan aytamanki, shu vaqtgacha o'z kemasida qolishni talab qilgan bu jasur zobit ko'p o'tmay yaralaridan vafot etdi. Samolyot bortida Qirollik dengiz flotining uchta ofitseri, qirollik havo kuchlarining bitta shifokori, ellik ikkita reyting va sakkizta xitoylik qolgan. Taxminan shu vaqtda, Nankingdagi dengiz attasheri yordamchisi, leytenant-komandir Kerans kemaga etib keldi va buyruq oldi.

"Ametist" ga erishish uchun yana bir jasoratli harakat R.A.F. 22 -kuni tushdan keyin Sanderlendda, lekin samolyot artilleriya o'qi bilan aloqaga chiqa olmadi. Keyin "Ametist" daryodan yana to'rt mil nariga ko'tarildi. U Bayroq xodimi bilan yaqin aloqada edi va bir qancha kurslar ko'rib chiqilgandan so'ng, u o'sha erda qolishga qaror qilindi.

Ehtimol, men hozirda ikkita savolni kutishim mumkin: birinchi navbatda, qanday qilib janobi oliylarining kemalari shunchalik katta zarar ko'rdi va qurbon bo'ldi, ikkinchidan, nima uchun ular qarama -qarshi batareyalarni jim qila olmadilar va ular bilan kurashishdi. Birinchisiga javoban, men aytardimki, harbiy kemalar daryolarda, qamish va loydan panoh topgan artilleriya va piyoda askarlariga qarshi ishlash uchun mo'ljallanmagan. Ko'rinib turibdiki, kommunistik kuchlar katta kuchga ega bo'lib, ular gubitsa, o'rta artilleriya va dala qurollari bilan jihozlangan. Yuqoridagi faktlar ham ikkinchi savolga ko'p javob beradi, faqat men buni qo'shardim. Bayroq xodimi siyosati faqat XMSni qutqarish uchun mo'ljallangan edi. "Ametist" va keraksiz qurbonlardan saqlanish uchun. Hech qanday jazo ekspeditsiyasi haqida gap yo'q edi va janobi oliylari kemalari faqat ularga qarshi o'q uzayotgan kuchlarning ovozini o'chirish uchun o'q uzdilar.

Men bu erda etkazilgan zarar va zararni qisqacha bayon qilaman. Jabrlanganlar: H.M.S. "London", 13 o'ldirilgan, 15 yarador H.M.S. "Consort", 10 kishi o'ldirilgan, 4 og'ir yaralangan, H.M.S. "Ametist", 19 o'ldirilgan, 27 yarador H.M.S. "Qora oqqush", 7 kishi yaralangan. Bundan tashqari, 12 ta reyting hali ham yo'qolgan. Kemalarga etkazilgan zararlardan "London" eng ko'p zarar ko'rdi, chunki u o'zining korpusida va yuqori qismida bir necha bor qolib ketgan. "Consort" va "Black Swan" ga etkazilgan zarar unchalik jiddiy emas edi. "London" va "Qora oqqush" favqulodda ta'mirlash ishlarini tugatgan. "Ametist" jiddiy zarar ko'rdi, lekin o'z ekipajining sa'y -harakatlari bilan o'n yetti tugun tezligini tikladi.

Qachon H.M.S. "Ametist" kommunistik kuchlar tomonidan o'qqa tutildi, janobi oliylari elchisi, Pekindagi oliy hazratlarining konsullik xizmatchisiga, har qanday yo'l bilan, Xitoy kommunistlarining eng yuqori vakolatli idorasi bilan bog'lanishni, bu haqda xabar beruvchi va darhol ko'rsatma berish masalasini so'ragan. ular Yangtse bo'ylab o'z harbiy qo'mondonlariga bunday otishni to'xtatishni talab qilishdi. Keyingi xabarda jabrlanganlarga tibbiy yordam ko'rsatish zarurligi ta'kidlangan va tinchlikparvar va gumanitar vazifalarni bajaruvchi qirollik dengiz flotining ushbu kemalariga keyingi o'q otilishining oldini olish bo'yicha ko'rsatma so'ralgani yana bir bor ta'kidlangan. Ammo mahalliy kommunistik hokimiyatlar konsulning maktublarini qabul qilishdan bosh tortishdi.

Bu vaqtda janob Edvard Youde, oliy qirolining tashqi xizmatining uchinchi kotibi, xitoy tilini yaxshi biladi, Pukou shimolidagi kommunistik kuchlar bilan bog'lanish uchun o'z ixtiyori bilan otishni to'xtatish uchun etarli vakolatga ega bo'lgan qo'mondonga yetib keladi. . His Majesty's Ambassador agreed to this attempt, and Mr. Youde passed through the Nationalist lines on the night of April 21. Thanks to his courage and determination, Mr. Youde succeeded in reaching the forward headquarters of the People's Liberation Army in the Pukou area on April 23. He described the situation as he knew it when he left Nanking on April 21, and pointed out to them the peaceful and humanitarian nature of the mission of H.M.S. "Amethyst," and requested that she be allowed to proceed to Nanking or Shanghai without further molestation.

Their headquarters took the line that clearance had not been obtained from the People's Liberation Army, and that she had entered the war area. They also complained of heavy casualties incurred by their troops as a result of fire from His Majesty's ships. They refused to admit justification of self-defence. After consulting higher authority, the headquarters stated that in the circumstances they would be prepared to allow the ship 29 to proceed to Nanking, but only on condition that she should assist the People's Liberation Army to cross the Yangtse. Such a condition was obviously unacceptable.

My attention has been drawn to a communiqu broadcast by the Communists which said that on the date in question warships on the Yangtse opened fire to prevent its crossing by Communist forces. It further stated that it was not until the following day that they learned that these ships were not all Chinese but that four British ships were among them. The Communists state that their forces suffered 252 casualties as a result of this firing, and claim that His Majesty's Government have directly participated in the Chinese civil war by firing on Communist positions. These claims are, of course, so far as they relate to His Majesty's Government or the Royal Navy, as fantastic as they are unfounded.

If there was any initial misunderstanding as to the nationality of H.M.S. "Amethyst." this would have been speedily resolved had the authorities in Peking acted on His Majesty's Ambassador's message. Moreover, had the Communist authorities objected in the past to the movement of British ships on the Yangtse, it was always open to them to raise these through our consular authorities in North China. It is the fact that for reasons best known to themselves the Communists have failed to notify any foreign authority present in areas which they have occupied of the channels through which contact can be maintained, and that they have rejected all communications made to them. In these circumstances, His Majesty's Government can only reserve their position.

The House will wish to join me in expressing sympathy with the relatives of all those who have been killed or wounded in this action, and in expressing admiration of the courage of all those who took part in it. Five names deserve special tribute. Lieutenant-Commander Skinner, R.N., the captain of the "Amethyst," behaved with the utmost gallantry till he succumbed to his wounds. The first lieutenant, Lieutenant J. C. Weston, refused to leave the "Amethyst," although dangerously wounded, until relieved in command by Lieutenant-Commander Kerans fifty-six hours later. Telegraphist J. L. French showed superlative devotion to duty. He was the only telegraphist left in the "Amethyst" after the early hours of April 21 and from then onwards his efforts kept the ship in almost continuous communication with Shanghai. The name should also be mentioned of Flight-Lieutenant K. H. Letford, D.S.O., D.F.C., who landed a Sunderland aircraft under fire to convey the naval and R.A.F. doctors to "Amethyst." The fifth name is that of Mr. Youde, whose one-man mission through the Communist armies I have already mentioned.

Without a doubt many other cases of bravery and devotion will be revealed when all the facts are known. But we already have ample evidence that the conduct of the whole ship's company of H.M.S. "Amethyst" was beyond all praise, though a considerable proportion were young sailors under fire for the first time. We have had reports of seamen and marines remaining at their task for up to twenty-four hours, though badly wounded, and of men declining to have their wounds treated until cases they considered more urgent had been dealt with. I have heard too that in H.M.S. "London" and "Black Swan," when there was a possibility of volunteers being flown to "Amethyst," there was almost acrimonious rivalry for selection to take on this heroic task.

I should mention that the United States naval authorities at Shanghai placed their resources unstintingly at our disposal, and the kindness and help of the British communities at Shanghai have been beyond all praise. Finally, the Chinese Nationalist forces in the Chinkiang area were most helpful in providing medical aid and stores which they could ill afford. The House will join with me in expressing our gratitude to all of these. I should like, in concluding this statement, to pay a tribute to the British communities in China, who have shown such steadfast behaviour in the difficult conditions in which they find themselves, and whose decision to remain in China in spite of the uncertainties created by the civil war is in accordance with the best British tradition.

The House is now in full possession of the facts known to His Majesty's Government, and we shall, of course, continue to keep the House informed of developments as they occur. It will be realised that the situation is at present very fluid, but if, at a later stage, there is a general desire for a debate on this matter, I am sure that this can be considered through the usual channels.

THE NAVAL REVIEW
1950 edition, Part 1
with permission of Roger Welby-Everard, Assistant Editor (On-Line)

by Commander J. S. Kerans. , R.N


Commander Kerans
(enlargement includes actor Richard Todd)

Much has already been written concerning H.M.S. Amethyst and her detention by the Communists' People's Liberation Army in the Yangtse Kiang, not only in the Press but in official documents a detailed account would now be redundant. Political considerations debar certain details and, in addition, publication of other matter might be prejudicial to the safety of certain people still in Communist-occupied China.

It is intended to attempt, in the following paragraphs, to try and elaborate on some of the less publicized points and bring out certain salutary lessons learnt. There will, therefore, be no co-ordinated and co-related "story" in the strict sense.

This was in evidence right from the start when the Embassy in Nanking became aware of the disaster which had overtaken one of H.M. ships whilst in pursuit of "their lawful occasions" No crossings of the Yangtse River had up to this time taken place, and uncertainty had prevailed for some weeks as to Communist intentions and ultimatums which so far had meant little in a war of "nerves." The Commander-in-Chief of the Chinese Nationalists' Navy, Admiral Kwei Yung-chin (now in Formosa) offered every facility and help that he could to assist in succouring Amethyst's wounded his orders were quickly conveyed to the Nationalist Army authorities in the immediate neighbourhood of Rose Island, where the ship had grounded.

Based on a Reuter's report that a number of wounded had reached a hospital in Chingkiang (subsequently found to be incorrect) I reached there by jeep (loaned by the Australian Military Attache) with our Assistant Military Attache on the 21st of April, 1949, with medical supplies. The Chinese Naval Headquarters offered us all assistance possible in the circumstances, and before dark that day we were at the village of Tachiang, the headquarters of the local Regional Commander here stretcher-bearers and coolie carriers were organized, since the roads to the banks of the Yangtse petered out as far as vehicular traffic was concerned.

We had by now the Medical Officer (United States Navy) from the American Embassy at Nanking and his sick berth assistant with us, and the Chinese Naval Chief of Staff from Chingkiang with this heterogeneous "team" we moved off to reach the nearest point to the Amethyst. After many and various tracks and considerable delays we intercepted some wounded shortly after midnight not far from the coast. It was here that it was learned that a Chinese National Army medical officer with two orderlies had been onboard the Amethyst that day to render first aid. In spite of language difficulties and intermittent sniping he stuck to his job and did invaluable work. After evacuating her wounded, except her first lieutenant, the Amethyst moved upstream during the night towards Chingkiang (Zhenjiang) it was impossible to reach her and by dawn the following day the dead and wounded were embarked for Chingkiang from Tachiang (modern location not identifed) .

It is here at Chingkiang that Admiral Kwei Yung-chin's authorization to myself worked wonders and after some hesitations we managed to solicit a sleeping coach on the last train to Shanghai. Every assistance to the wounded was given by the American-run Stevenson Mission Hospital at Chingkiang. The matron in charge was an United States subject - one of the many gallant women who devote the greater part of their lives endeavouring to improve the well-being of the Chinese for so little in return.

These brief words show that many people were concerned in the evacuation of the Amethyst's wounded from her difficult position. Later in Shanghai the U.S. authorities placed the United States naval hospital ship Repose from Tsingtao at the Royal Navy's disposal. By this time the Chinese Nationalist Army had successfully evacuated by train from Changchow (about fifteen miles due south of Rose Island - modern location not identifed ) some sixty ratings who had been ordered to evacuate the ship when under fire to avoid further loss of life due to minefields they could not rejoin her. Thus it can be seen that co-operation was much in evidence in the very early stages this continued in all the ways that were practicable throughout our enforced immobility.

The very ready assistance of the Royal Air Force in Sunderlands from Hongkong was of the highest order. The Yangtse is not an easy place to land in, and Communist gunfire did not assist matters the help of the R.A.F. medical officer was invaluable and things might well have been difficult without his presence (but see later). It is perhaps not generally known that the first R.A.F. Sunderland to close the Amethyst had two army ranks on board they were trained "droppers " and if all else failed it was intended to parachute medical supplies to as close to the Amethyst as was possible.

There is no doubt that this was the most important point of all to consider from the word "go" an incident of this nature which came with such suddenness is bound to affect those concerned in various ways. From all the evidence that I have gathered, there is everything to show that morale was of a high order, in spite of the extreme youth of many ratings. When I joined eventually p.m. on the 22nd of April, 1949, though, it was near breaking point after three days under fire and with little rest, this was not surprising in addition the presence of seventeen dead onboard for over fifty-six hours was a depressing influence. In spite of all, they were prepared for the last rites by a valiant team of petty officers and a few junior ratings. Eventually, when the ship's company realized the situation and the hopelessness of movement either way, there was a distinct hardening of determination to stick it out and face the future with equanimity and confidence.

It was thus from the very start that orders were given to sandbag the habitable messdecks and vital spaces such as the W/T office and bridge. This did much to help. Early on I decided that a strict Service routine must, and would be, adhered to from the beginning. This continued throughout and with watchkeeping every day and night on the bridge as well as considerable damage repairs being necessitated, this kept men fit and physically tired.

Non-working hours were hard to fill there was little to find to do. We were lucky to have had an unbroken S.R.E. (sound recording equipment?) except of course when power was shut down) and a fairly plentiful supply of gramophone records. No attempt by officers was ever made to institute recreational games for ratings. This bore fruit and it was not long before they made their own entertainment I have felt that there is nothing more a sailor dislikes than being "organized" into whist drives or other such ideas which eventually finish up as a dismal " flop".

The ship's company were always kept fully informed (as far as was possible) of the outcome of all my meetings with the C.P.L.A. (China People's Liberation Army) I did, however, never at any time give them any assurance that events would be speedy - it was a personal opinion, which became truer as time unfortunately wore on. Certain selected chief and petty officers were given access to the ship's signal log each day this did much to help morale and gave petty officers a clearer knowledge of the issues at stake, and acted as a deterrent to the proverbial false "buzzes."

In addition, the knowledge that everything possible was being done by all authorities elsewhere to extricate the Amethyst gave the ship's company added assurance and confidence. The ability to receive and send telegrams helped immeasurably (265 were despatched during our 101 days internment). Inability to send an outgoing mail was unfortunate but we did receive three bags towards the end of June for reasons best known to the C.P.L.A. it was well censored and pilfered. The presence of two domestics, and a cat and a dog onboard who had somehow survived the shelling, tended to produce an air of normalcy in messdeck life.

VICTUALLING - This was an important problem from the beginning and needed much care and attention as it was considered essential to provide a balanced diet, with as much additional variety as stocks permitted, to give some compensatory advantage in the circumstances we had found ourselves. Fortuitously the Amethyst was well stocked, having just left Hongkong, and in addition was carrying flour and frying-oil and other provisions for the Embassy at Nanking to replace their emergency stocks which the lengthened stay of the Consort up-river had depleted.

Mercifully the forward galley remained intact and was in constant use throughout there was thus no difficulty in baking bread and the provision of hot meals. Casualties amongst the cooks (whites as well as Chinese) were nil, which was salutary. By bartering with surplus flour, frying-oil, soap, duffel coats, seaboots and other articles we were able to augment our fare with eggs and potatoes (albeit small, but better than dehydrated). Later on we were able to obtain Communist money (Jen Min Piao, which translated means People's Money) and increase our purchases.

For large amounts I was able on occasions to use Hongkong currency. Whichever way one looks at it we lost heavily on the rate of exchange, and their prices were as the opposition wished perhaps I reached the limit when after three months I discovered Shanghai-brewed beer was available in Chingkiang, by paying approximately 12s. 6d. per bottle I was determined that the ship's company would have some amenities, leaving final payment until later. The Commander-in-Chief kindly allowed public money to be used and eventually the Station Central Amenities Fund re-imbursed the Crown. This gave morale a great boost. The daily issue of rum continued as usual - stocks of this were sufficient for many months ahead this is not surprising when 25 out of the 68 eligible were under twenty years of age.

When I went on to half rations at the beginning of July the seriousness of the situation was very quickly brought home to many ratings. This mainly concerned conservation of cold room stocks and butter, milk, sugar and tea. Looking back on it now there was sufficient calorific value at each meal not to cause undue anxiety the main trouble was lack of variety. A careful tally was kept on every item each week and the limiting dates of each article were re-assessed. By the end of August it was estimated that starvation would have been very close. Still I was preparing to go on quarter rations early in August it would have been then that difficulty in maintaining morale might have been hard. In view of this contingency, lack of food was one of my reasons for the "breakout."

I take this item next as everything ultimately depended on damage control and refitting and maintenance of all machinery. Amongst the wounded who were evacuated were the Amethyst's engineer officer and chief E.R.A. in addition the chief stoker was drowned and others were killed, wounded or evacuated. It was a depleted engine room staff that remained, but mercifully the majority were petty officer stoker mechanics backed up with sufficient hands to run machinery. Considerable credit is due to the senior E.R.A. who kept up the efficiency of his department, with the electrical officer in over-all command. It is interesting to note that this E.R.A. had been a prisoner-of-war of the Japanese for three and a half years in Sumatra.

Without going into details here I cannot stress too highly how important knowledge of damage control is when disasters such as this occur especially ship knowledge. It was unfortunate that large drafting changes had taken place in the Amethyst only a few days previously. The important points which come to my mind here are accurate damage control markings and dispersion of lockers and fire-fighting equipment. A more simplified form of markings on doors and fans should, I feel, be introduced. Young ratings are inevitably going to forget what the various letterings stand for in time of emergency. The dangers of ratings painting over rubber on hatches and doors is still too evident wherever one looks and in spite of all that has been said in training. Only time and constant supervision will eradicate this very important detail. There is no doubt that our peace-time damage control must be maintained as near to the war-time scale as habitability allows.

The vital factor throughout our detention was over fuel, on which everything depended. The Amethyst left Shanghai on her fateful journey with full tanks. A small amount was lost by pumping to refloat after grounding by the time I joined her on the 22nd of April approximately 270 tons remained on board. No attempt was made in the early days at conservation since the situation was dangerous and fluid. On April 28th contact had been made with the Communists ashore, and with the realization that time meant little to the C.P.L.A., steps were initiated to curtail consumption. As time wore on the hours without power became greater - at the end we were shut down for as long as 59 hours without steam.

This was grim and was accentuated by the extreme heat which the Yangtse experiences in July. The limiting factors were (a) the cold rooms and (b) the magazines: the former temperatures rose very little, and the latter had some way to go before danger point was reached. I consider we could have exceeded this period and existed shut down for 72 hours at a time with strict rationing of fresh water.

The only power available during these periods was a 24-volt battery supply from the lower power room for the emergency W/T set and a few pin-points of lights in my cabin and on the messdecks. To live in a "dead ship" is an experience which none of us are likely to forget. Our lowest average daily consumption of fuel for the week was a ton a day. Isolation of one side of the engine room helped considerably, and at the same time allowed refitting to continue. Employment of engine room ratings when shut down was difficult, but eventually sufficient items on the upper-deck with departmental affinity were found to keep them fully employed in chipping. From the health point of view this was beneficial in the case of some of the younger ratings.

The outstanding success perhaps of all our time in the River was the receipt of 54 tons of Admiralty oil fuel in 294 drums from Hogee Wharf, Nanking. I shall never know why the Communist authorities were so ready to accede to the entry of this invaluable oil fuel. I should explain here that this was a reserve of fuel built up at Hogee (where H.M. ships lie alongside) in the event of a prolonged stay being necessary at Nanking due to the Civil War. Over the months each ship had filled up so many drums before departure. The Naval Attache's foresight paid handsome dividends in the end. This was the one mistake of Colonel Kang Mao-Chao (the Political Commissioner and chief negotiator against me) for a long time he thought we burned coal!

Embarkation of this fuel in drums was an interesting, though strenuous, operation. Due to shortage of man-power no steam was possible. All this fuel was pumped and poured into the three fuelling connections. No pumps being available and the fuel line being on the port side an excessive list to port was necessitated fortunately the weather was fine, but I experienced a few anxious moments until steam was raised and we could level off.

The other miracle was the evaporator, which never let us down (only one in this class of ship). One amusing incident I recall was when an extremely harassed and worried E.R.A. reported that the rocker arm on the evaporator was fractured. Inspection by myself and the electrical officer left no doubt at the time. Signals were made and Hongkong Dockyard over a week-end was quickly at work making another some time later the E.R.A. reported that this fracture had now developed into a very thin streak of cotton waste heavily impregnated in lubricants! Relief was great.

Stability had some interesting problems and a close study of the Ship's Book was made. When the light condition was reached it was approved to flood the forward ballast tank and X magazine (X gun was destroyed, anyway) instead of flooding oil fuel tanks the two after ones were flooded earlier on. I hoped to keep as many tanks free of Yangtse water and its large amount of sand whilst there was any hope of fuel replenishment. For the passage out of the Yangtse Nos. 1, 2, 7 and 8 O.F.T. and the ballast tank and magazine previously mentioned were flooded. All fuel remaining for the break-out was previously transferred to Nos. 3 and 4 O.F. Tanks to avoid losing too much by loss of suction.

Training in damage control was not overlooked and the boys were put through a course the many weeks spent in shoring and cutting away damage provided a useful instruction for the great majority.

The world has never seen a good deal of the damage caused to the Amethyst's upperworks since all that was practicable was cut away. To increase stability many heavy weights were struck below - the best examples of this were the damaged Bofors and certain radar equipment (but more of this later).

A blackboard was kept in my cabin throughout with details of fuel of all types remaining in each tank, fresh water, main items of food and limits of endurance in each case.

In all, nineteen meetings took place with the Communist military authorities of this number eight were preliminary "skirmishes" with the opposition ashore near the Amethyst or onboard. The remainder were all on shore and for the most part held in Chingkiang at the General's headquarters.

These meetings were held with a very thin veil of amicability and rigid formality. The convening authority was the Area Commander, General Yuan Chung-hsien, whose appearances at the table were few and always of short duration. In spite of everything that was said the negotiating powers on his behalf were handed over to the Political Commissioner, Colonel Kang Mao-Chao he also is alleged to have been the Battery Commander at Sang Chiang Ying who originally fired on the Amethyst.

Kang had two interpreters who were both former students and well indoctrinated in Communist ideologies. It is of interest that everything I have ever said at all these meetings has been religiously taken down in full, in English as well as in Chinese. At some meetings I had the attention of the Press and propaganda section of the C.P.L.A. thus I am well documented. The keenest photographer was a female who one day actually ventured out in a sampan from the local village nearby to photograph the Amethyst at all angles. The local garrison commander, Captain Tai Kuo-liang, who acted as my personal bodyguard, also attended each meeting but apart from writing reams he was never allowed to say a word. Funnily enough we used to converse in French.

The progress of the meetings can fairly be summed up as representing a sine curve at one meeting some hope for safe conduct was given, but the next would speedily dash it to the ground. By July it was evident that the Communists were deliberately protracting the course of proceedings and that safe conduct would only be given provided H.M. Government acceded to damaging admissions which were, of course, quite unacceptable. At no time was any assistance to aid me allowed to enter the area by the C.P.L.A. every excuse, artifice and device was made to put pressure on myself to assume high-level responsibility to negotiate as a pre-requisite to safe conduct assertion.

That the main W/T office was undamaged in the initial shelling was indeed fortunate and even more so that an electrical officer was onboard. This officer belonged to the senior officer's frigate at Shanghai and was on passage to Nanking in order to repair the Amethyst's radar. (No sooner had he done this than circumstances were such that destruction of classified radar equipment was ordered for security reasons). Some while after many ratings had been ordered to evacuate the Amethyst this officer, having reason to believe that the emergency transmitter was again working, found there were no W/T ratings left onboard. It is coincidence, or perhaps chance, that Telegraphist French was a volunteer to man the whaler ferrying wounded and others to the mainland. He was quickly hauled out of this and thus it was that this rating became the sole wireless operator left in the Amethyst. He did well, and it speaks highly of West Country physique and guts that he stood up to continuous watchkeeping for so long.

Two electrical ratings were eventually trained to read our call-sign and simple procedure. By special arrangements with the flagship or Hongkong continuous watch was always maintained, and the telegraphist rested accordingly. The Type 60 W/T was used when without power and proved itself reliable the last valve went, however, soon after the Hogee fuel arrived at the beginning of July. This necessitated raising steam for transmission and was therefore costly in fuel. We were able to maintain continuous listening watch with a B.28 receiver.

Having to resort to plain language or other insecure means severely limited the reporting of the outcome of my meetings and imparting my intentions to my Commander-in-Chief. The net result was that we nearly succeeded in deceiving each other as to our ideas. In the end, all was clear.

The volume of traffic throughout our period up-river was fairly high and of necessity signals were extremely lengthy. Excellent co-operation at Stonecutters reduced repetitions to a minimum. It is fairly certain that the opposition were eventually reading our messages and considering we were on the same wavelength for many months, it is perhaps not surprising. The need for caution was paramount. Lack of codes and cyphers was undoubtedly my severest handicap, and in the end a reasonably secure but limited method was adopted.

Rising temperatures in July began to tell on the telegraphist, and there is no shadow of doubt that physically his mental capacity in reading traffic was falling rapidly. There was unfortunately little we could do when shut down to alleviate conditions. This was one of my paramount reasons that escape was the only solution.

The most difficult aspect of this operation was to make the decision having obtained political clearance for such an eventuality the final move was left to me, which of course it had to be in the circumstances. It was clear that Colonel Kang had little intention of allowing entry of fuel from Shanghai for a long time, if at all. Moon conditions at the end of July were favourable and I could not risk awaiting another opportunity, since the time was drawing near when operational immobility to get out of the Yangtse would have been reached, even with further very drastic curtailment of fuel consumption.

The climate was at its worst and though the physical condition of all onboard was reasonably high, no one could have expected such a state of affairs to continue. The Yangtse was at its highest peak so the risk navigationally was worth taking, and if I was hard pressed or badly damaged the channel out to the open sea north of Tsungming Island had hopes of success there was plenty of river water to pump overboard from the oil fuel tanks and ammunition to jettison to reduce our draught.

As early as May, 1949, I had always considered in my mind that escape would have to be faced eventually. How this could be achieved without disaster I was unable to fathom - but while negotiations gave some hope of eventual agreement I considered it my duty to continue at them to the best of my ability. One thing I felt essential was to reduce the Amethyst's silhouette and increase stability by reducing top-weight. Accordingly a systematic reduction of damaged superstructure and equipment was put in hand. No officer or rating was ever aware of the real object my "cover" was occupation for the hands and increase of stability by striking below. I was considered somewhat "eccentric" on this score by many! In this way the mast was stripped of many items, radar aerials, aids to gunnery and a host of other items on the upper deck. It was hoped to reduce splinter damage in addition. As could be seen in Hongkong, this was excessive in the initial shelling and caused many casualties, especially electrically.

My object finally was to build up the Amethyst's silhouette to simulate an L.S.T., a number of which had been seen plying the Yangtse commercially. These were former U.S. landing craft which still retained a radar set. For this reason I left an aerial intact and partly because of the risk due to shelling in dismantling it. Black canvas suitably positioned heightened the silhouette and in addition a quantity of dark paint was thrown on to paintwork to gloss it over.

The only armament available that could be fought was one 4-inch gun and an Oerlikon (port side). X gun was destroyed and A gun was intact. The starboard Bofors was also destroyed and most of it had been dismantled and struck below. The port Bofors was never onboard, being in Hongkong dockyard for modifications. The starboard Oerlikon was completely shot away. Bren guns and Lanchesters made up the available armament. In the weeks prior to the break-out all R.U. (ready use) ammunition was ditched to reduce fire risk certain fireworks and "dangerous" ammunition were also thrown overboard for this reason. Sufficient detonators were, however, held back for eventual destruction of the ship if disaster had necessitated it.

The only aid to navigation was the echo-sounder which proved itself reliable and accurate throughout. Experienced Yangtse pilots had, I later learnt, stated that an echo-sounder in the Yangtse could not give a true and accurate sounding due to the fast flow of the river in spate. From this experience it seems that soundings gave me sufficient warning in time to sheer over to deeper water. Lowest recorded reading on the passage out was three fathoms.

We had no charts of the area from where we started to just beyond Rose Island but a Chinese Admiralty Chart Folio which the Nanking Chinese naval authorities had lent me gave sufficient indication of the courses. The remaining charts we had but of course over four months out of date. It was found later that about fifty per cent, of the buoys were roughly in place and the remainder non-existent.

My "intention" signal was passed to the Commander-in-Chief and the Concord at the Saddle Islands in the dog watches on the 30th of July, 1949, and at dusk certain selected ratings were briefed in my cabin. The ship's company were later told by word of mouth in view of possible Chinese reaction onboard. It was planned to slip the cable at 2200 but I decided to wait a few minutes to allow the moon (moon set 2315) to disappear behind a bank of clouds. At this precise moment a fully-lighted merchant ship appeared ahead coming down river from Chingkiang. This was fortuitous, and I decided to follow astern of her hoping that I should not be observed by the control points and that in following her I should be navigationally assisted over a difficult portion of the river of which I had no knowledge. What happened later makes it quite certain that the presence of this passenger ship completely confused the Communist batteries.

This ship, now known to be the Kiangling Liberation, was quickly challenged by flares, and rightly replied with the appropriate siren signals. Almost immediately the Amethyst likewise was challenged but made no reply. An H.D.M.L. or L.C.I.(L.) on our port bow, obviously part of the "set-up" waiting for such an eventuality, for reasons best known to herself opened fire at their own batteries across our bows. My immediate impression was that she was endeavouring to stop us and would board if she could. In a matter of seconds the Amethyst came under heavy and reasonably accurate fire from four well placed batteries (three to starboard and one to port). We were quickly hit on the waterline amidships just forward of the bridge by this time full ahead both had been rung on for reasons I cannot yet explain the Amethyst took an unaccountable list to starboard and steering was well nigh impossible - nor, of course, would B gun bear.

(I remember vividly feeling sure that we had been badly hit and that one shaft was out of action in my mind I was making initial plans to beach in a suitable place if I could get clear of the batteries to evacuate my ship's company and then blow up the ship. I prayed that the Commander-in-Chief would have received my initial "under fire" signal it was with extreme relief we received his reply some minutes later. By then we had passed the first hurdle.)

The Kiangling Liberation soon lost his head and turned to port, switched off his lights, and blew his siren vociferously. The Amethyst began to gather headway at speed and made black smoke weaving heavily we finally slipped past the Kiangling Liberation with about two feet to spare. On looking astern later it was somewhat surprising to see her on fire and the batteries pounding away in all directions. The use of smoke was advantageous (and again at Kiangyin) and seemed to provide a good aiming mark for the opposition.

The remainder of the passage has been fully told but I should make it clear that the "boom" which the Press continue even now to make much of did not exist. (This was a relic of Press stories in April, 1949, and no Intelligence has ever found anything to support any pontoons or obstructions being "strung across." In that current it would be beyond the capabilities of Chinese from either side). The Kiangyin Boom (or Kiang Yin = Jiangyin) is a relic of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and was a line of sunken merchant ships across the river all are now below the surface. There is a narrow gap cleared at present and it was normally marked by two flashing buoys. Only one was in place when I passed by and the area was covered by Oerlikon batteries and a small patrol craft fire from both was ineffectual.

The greatest danger on the passage down was my leaking tiller flat by strenuous efforts the pumps held and all was well. I might mention here that the initial damage very nearly put paid to the telemotor steering leads running through the depth charge store rust was so bad that a sharp pencil would nearly penetrate them and there were no spares held onboard.

The sheer guts of those onboard below decks speaks highly for all, especially the youngsters. Engine room temperatures were extremely high and of course there were no reliefs it was difficult in the circumstances to pass round a steady flow of information from the bridge. Those whose action station was below decks in the early part of the last war will know the strain of waiting only too well.

One small but important point was fully borne out by this tragic incident. There is absolutely nothing wrong in the leadership of the chief and petty officer of to-day. A good many had undertaken disciplinary courses (exact proportion I do not now know - January, 1950) and the merit of these is most fully justified. Chief and petty officers are the important "link in the chain," and no stone should be left unturned to encourage these men to remain on in the Service so many excellent "types" fail to continue after their "Twelve" that a greater pecuniary incentive should be offered.

Considerable publicity was given to our "escape" and eventual passage to the United Kingdom, and again at Plymouth and London. Some quarters have voiced disapproval of this course - especially as the Black Swan and Consort did not come home too. However, it took place, and we had to face it taking an over-all view it has really done the Royal Navy little harm, and perhaps our recruiting figures may show an increase.

I have received between 700 and 800 letters and cables from all parts of the United Kingdom, the British Commonwealth and many foreign countries. Many and diverse peoples have written, and in this country of ours it evinces an unswerving loyalty and faith in the hope for a resurgence of more amenable times. This in itself gives much encouragement for the future.

The final honour we were accorded was to appear in Buckingham Palace before His Majesty the King and the Royal Family. Each rating had one friend or relation present (those with gongs, two). Two comments by parents which appeared in the Press are a fair summing up: "The Queen smiled at me, it was all I wanted," and the other: - "Our .. joined up just two years ago. I never could have dreamed that he would get us inside the Palace in that time."

The last nine months have been difficult but unforgettable times. It was a situation which has had no parallel in history and, it is hoped, will not occur again. From the youngest to the oldest the situation was faced with poise and confidence, which was indeed salutary. This was my greatest asset. The spirit of leadership and devotion to duty by those under my command was fully exemplified throughout this after all is the fundamental basis of all our training and everything that the Royal Navy has stood for in the past and stands for in the present and the future.

Co-operation was predominant from the start to the finish and that no link in the "chain" was broken augurs well for the future, and speaks much for the Royal Navy's basic training.

Prayers to Almighty God were not overlooked in our routine during those weary and trying days last summer. There is an ingrained sense of religion deep down in most of us, apparent more in some than in others how easy it could have been as the empty days wore on to be discouraged and adopt a fatalistic outlook.

In conclusion I quote the final paragraph of my covering letter to the Report on The Yangtse Incident of 1949:

"Our prayers were answered, and escape was achieved without loss of life and serious damage. FAITH is not the least of the lessons to be learnt when in adversity."