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Boston choy partiyasi


1770 yilda Amerika noroziliklari parlamentni Townshend majburiyatlarini bekor qilishga olib keldi - inglizlar tomonidan saqlanadigan choy boji bundan mustasno. Amerikalik qarshilikning samaradorligi koloniyalarda choy sotishning keskin pasayishida ko'rsatildi - uch yil ichida 70 foizga tushib ketdi.1773 yilda parlament Choy to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qildi, bu ingliz Ost -Hindiston kompaniyasiga choyni koloniyalarga olib kirishda monopoliyani berish orqali bankrotlikdan saqlanish imkoniyatini berdi. Britaniyaliklar amerikaliklar choy uchun arzon narx to'lashga qodir bo'lsalar, soliqni o'z xohishlariga ko'ra to'laydilar, deb o'ylashdi. 28 noyabrda Dartmut Darjeling choyi bilan Boston portiga keldi. Samuel Adams va boshqa radikallar yuk shaharga tushmasligini aniqladilar. Gubernator Tomas Xatchinson ham xuddi shunday jangovar edi va boshqa mustamlakalarda bo'lgani kabi jamoatchilik qarshiligiga qaramay taslim bo'lmaslikka va'da berdi. Qunduz va Eleanor, Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasidan ko'proq yuklar bilan keldi. Xatchinson qat'iyatli bo'lib, yuklar qirg'oqqa olib chiqilishini va qonunga muvofiq soliqqa tortilishini aytdi. Choy akti kema kelganidan keyin 20 kun ichida kerakli soliqni yig'ib olishni talab qildi, bu esa 16 dekabrga belgilangan muddat edi. Sem Adams Old Janubiy Uchrashuvlar Uyida ommaviy yig'ilishlar o'tkazib, jamoatchilik g'ayratini baland tutdi; 5 mingga yaqin olomon atrofdagi ko'chalarni tiqib oldi.Bu yig'ilishlardan birida qabul qiluvchilarga choyni qaytarib berishni so'ragan rezolyutsiya qabul qilindi. 16 -dekabr kuni Dartmut kemasini Angliyaga qaytarishga rozi bo'ldi. Biroq, Britaniya rasmiylari kemani portni tozalashga ruxsat berishni rad etib, soliq to'lanmaganligi uchun kemani tortib olishga tayyorgarlik ko'rishni boshlagach, keskinlikni pasaytirish imkoniyati to'satdan tugadi. Old janubda to'plangan. Moxawk hindulari qiyofasida o'zlarini ishontirmagan 50 ga yaqin kishilar guruhi, Griffin tog'iga qisqa masofani bosib o'tdi, u erda uchta kema bindirildi, kemalarga o'tirildi, yuk ehtiyotkorlik bilan tutqichlardan olindi va palubalarga joylashtirildi. To'xtab turgan olomon, bu "sho'r suvli choy" ning pishirilishini ma'qulladi. "Choy partiyasi" tezda Amerikaning boshqa port shaharlarida qayta tiklandi va tortishuvda tomonlarni qutbga aylantirdi. Vatanparvar va sodiq odamlar o'z nuqtai nazarlariga qattiqroq kirishdilar. O'sha kunning mashhur qo'shig'i "Inqilobiy choy" deb nomlangan. Uning birinchi misrasi shunday edi: "Dengiz bo'yida bir kampir yashar edi va u orol malikasi edi; uning qizi yangi mamlakatda yashar edi, o'rtasida okean bor edi. Kampirning cho'ntagi oltin bilan to'la edi, lekin hech qachon U mamnun edi, shuning uchun u qizini soliq to'lashga chaqirdi, choyiga bir funt, pensiga uch pens. "Parlament va qirol shaxsiy mulkning vayron qilinishi va qasddan suiiste'mol qilinishidan xafa bo'lishdi. qirol hokimiyati. Tez orada ular qattiqroq harakatlarga o'tishadi.


Amerika inqilobining vaqt jadvalini va Boston xaritasini ko'ring.


Boston choy partiyasi - tarix

Boston choy partiyasi
Raqamli tarix ID 1192

Muallif: Jorj Robert Twelve Hewes
Sana: 1773 yil

Izoh: Jorj Robert Twelve Hewes, Boston poyabzali, keyinchalik inqilobda oddiy askar va dengizchi sifatida jang qilgan, Boston qirg'inida bo'lgan va Boston choy partiyasida etakchi bo'lib xizmat qilgan.


Hujjat: Vayron qilingan choy uchta kemada edi, ular o'sha paytda Griffin portida bir -birining yonida edilar va qurolli jangovar kemalar bilan o'ralgan edi, ularning qo'mondonlari, agar ular isyonchilar xohlasa, uslubini ochiq e'lon qilishdi. Bostoniyaliklar, 1773 yil 17 -dekabrning 17 -kunidan oldin, ma'lum vaqtdan oldin, choyning tushishiga qarshi chiqishlarini qaytarib olmasliklari kerak.

O'n ettinchi kundan oldingi kuni, Bostondagi cherkovlardan birida, Sufolk okrugi fuqarolarining yig'ilishi bo'lib o'tdi, ular choy tushishining oldini olish uchun qanday choralar ko'rish mumkinligi haqida maslahatlashdi. odamlarni burch yig'ilishidan himoya qilish. O'sha yig'ilishda gubernator Xatchinsonni kutish uchun qo'mita tayinlandi va u odamlardan yig'ilish mavzusini qondirish uchun biron bir chora ko'radimi yoki yo'qligini aytib berishni so'radi.

Bu qo'mitaning birinchi arizasiga, gubernator ularga aniq javobni tushdan keyin soat beshgacha berishini aytdi. Belgilangan vaqtda qo'mita yana gubernatorning uyini ta'mirladi va surishtiruv natijalariga ko'ra, u Milton shahridagi qarorgohiga, taxminan olti mil masofada ketganini aniqladi. Qo'mita qaytib kelib, yig'ilishga gubernator yo'qligi to'g'risida xabar berganida, a'zolar orasida chalkashlik paydo bo'ldi va yig'ilish darhol tarqatib yuborildi, ularning ko'plari: "Har kim o'z burchini bajarsin va o'z ishiga sodiq qolsin. mamlakat "va Griffin portining umumiy huzzasi bor edi.

Kech bo'ldi, men darhol o'zim va sheriklarim ko'mir changiga yuzim va qo'llarimni bo'yab qo'yganimdan so'ng, men tomaxovk deb nomlangan kichkina xaltachali hind kostyumini kiyindim. temirchining do'koni, men Griffin iskala tomon ta'mirladim, u erda choy bor kemalar yotardi. Niqob kiyganimdan keyin birinchi marta ko'chada paydo bo'lganimda, men kabi kiyingan, jihozlangan va bo'yalgan, men bilan birga tushgan va boradigan joyimizga qarab yurgan ko'p odamlar bilan uchrashdim.

Biz iskala yaqiniga etib kelganimizda, bizning operatsiyamizga rahbarlik qilish huquqini olgan uchta raqamimiz bor edi. Ular bizni uchta partiyaga bo'lishdi, bir vaqtning o'zida choy bo'lgan uchta kemaga chiqish uchun. Men tayinlangan diviziyani boshqargan odamning ismi Leonard Pitt edi. Men hech qachon bilmagan boshqa qo'mondonlarning ismlari.

Biz zudlik bilan tegishli qo'mondonlar tomonidan barcha kemalarga bir vaqtning o'zida minishni buyurdik, biz ularga bo'ysundik. Men tegishli bo'linma qo'mondoni, biz kema bortida bo'lganimizda, meni qayiqchi qilib tayinladi va menga kapitanning oldiga borishni buyurdi va undan lyuklarning kalitlari va o'nlab shamni talab qildi. Men shunga mos ravishda talabni qo'ydim va kapitan darhol javob berib, maqolalarni etkazib berdi, lekin bir vaqtning o'zida mendan kemaga zarar etkazmaslikni yoki soxtalashtirishni so'radi.

Bizga qo'mondonimizdan lyuklarni ochib, choyning barcha ko'kragini chiqarib, kemaga tashlab yuborishni buyurdi va biz darhol uning buyrug'ini bajara boshladik, avval ko'kragimizni tomoq chig'anoqlari bilan kesib tashladik. suvning ta'siri.

Biz bortga chiqqanimizdan taxminan uch soat o'tgach, biz kemada topiladigan har bir choy sandig'ini sindirib tashladik, boshqa kemalarda bo'lganlar esa xuddi shu tarzda choyni tashladilar. Biz ingliz qurolli kemalari bilan o'ralgan edik, lekin bizga qarshilik ko'rsatishga urinishmadi.

Keyin biz bir -birimiz bilan gaplashmasdan yoki sheriklarimiz kimligini aniqlash uchun hech qanday choralar ko'rmasdan, bir necha yashash joyimizga jimgina nafaqaga chiqdik va bu ishda manfaatdor bo'lgan bitta odamning ismini bilganimizni eslay olmayman. , men aytgan bo'linma qo'mondoni Leonard Pittdan tashqari. Ko'rinib turibdiki, har bir kishi o'z xizmatini ixtiyoriy ravishda bajarishi, o'z sirini yashirishi va oqibatini o'zi uchun xavf ostiga qo'yishi kerak. Bu bitim paytida hech qanday tartibsizlik yuz bermadi va o'sha paytda Boston ko'p oylar davomida zavqlangan eng tungi tun kuzatildi.

Biz choyni kemaga tashlaganimizda, Boston va uning yaqinidagi ba'zi fuqarolar oiladan foydalanish uchun oz miqdorda olib ketishga urinishgan. Bu ob'ektni amalga oshirish uchun ular kemaning pastki qismidan bir hovuchni olib, cho'ntagiga solib qo'yish imkoniyatini ko'rib qolishardi.

Men bilgan kapitan O'Konnor shu maqsadda kemaga keldi va u buni sezmaganida cho'ntaklarini, shuningdek paltosining astarini to'ldirdi. Ammo men uni aniqladim va kapitanga nima qilayotgani haqida ma'lumot berdim. Biz uni hibsga olishni buyurdik va u idishdan tushayotganida, men uni paltosining etagidan tutdim va uni orqaga tortmoqchi bo'lib, uni yirtib tashladim, lekin tez harakat qilib oldinga sakrab chiqdim. qochib qutuldi. Biroq, u to'qqiz kishilik iskala ustidan olomon orasidan o'tib ketishi kerak edi.

Katta xarob shlyapa va oq parik kiygan, o'sha paytdagi moda bo'lgan uzun bo'yli, keksa odam yuk xarobalaridan bir oz choyni qutqarishga urinib ko'rdi. U cho'ntagiga bir oz sirg'anib kirdi, lekin ular uni ushlab olishdi va boshidan shlyapa va parikni olib, cho'ntaklarini bo'shatgan choy bilan birga suvga uloqtirishdi. Keksaygan yoshini hisobga olgan holda, unga engil zarba berib, qochishga ruxsat berildi.

Ertasi kuni ertalab, biz kemalarni choydan tozalashdan so'ng, uning katta qismi suv yuzasida suzib yurgani va uni saqlash uchun bir qancha kichik qayiqlarning saqlanishini oldini olishdi. ularni dengizchilar va fuqarolar boshqarar edilar, ular choy qaerda ko'rinsa, portning o'sha joylariga olib kirishadi va uni eshkak va belkuraklar bilan urib, butun halokatini muqarrar qilib qo'yishadi.


Choydan porloq dengizgacha: Boston choy partiyasi

Lisa M. Green tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan, Swampscott High School, Swampscott, Mass.

Choydan to Shining dengizigacha Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari tarixi va A.P. Iqtisodiyot darslari uchun o'quv dasturlari mavjud. "Tarix" o'quv dasturida talabalar Boston choy partiyasiga olib keladigan keskinlikni keltirib chiqargan turli xil iqtisodiy, siyosiy va ijtimoiy yo'nalishlarni aniqlash uchun dastlabki dastlabki hujjatlarning besh bo'limidan foydalanadilar. Har bir bo'limda o'quvchilarni guruh muhokamasiga tayyorlashga yordam beradigan hujjatlar tahlili va "Ko'rib chiqish" savollari mavjud. Birlik og'zaki bahs -munozaralar bilan yakunlanadi, shuningdek, hujjatlarga asoslangan bahsli insholar. "Iqtisodiyot" o'quv dasturida talabalar Boston choy partiyasining tarixiy voqeasini soliq siyosati, O'yin nazariyasi, talab egri chiziqlari va monopoliyalarni o'z ichiga olgan iqtisodiy tahlilni qo'llash orqali ko'rishadi. Choy partiyasi oldidan o'tkaziladigan asosiy tadbirlarni ko'rib chiqadigan PowerPoint taqdimotini o'quv dasturidan foydalanish uchun yuklab olish mumkin.


Jorj Xivs - mashhur namoyish ishtirokchilari haqida gap ketganda, albatta, eng taniqli ismlardan biri. Uning tarjimai holida kam ma'lum bo'lgan voqealardan biri uning Jon Xankok bilan uchrashish sharoitlari edi. Hewes 1763 yilda poyabzal ustasi bo'lganida, Jon Xankok uchun poyabzal ta'mirlash imkoniga ega bo'lgan.

Ba'zida choy partiyasidagi kemalar adashib inglizlar deb ataladi. Aslida, faqat choy Sharqiy Hindiston choy kompaniyasiga tegishli edi, lekin kemalarning o'zi amerikalik edi. Nantuket Boston choy partiyasida, Qunduz va Dartmutda qatnashgan ikkita kemaning uy porti edi. Garchi Dartmut choy tashish tarixiga kirgan bo'lsa -da, u boshqa maqsadda va#150 dengizda kit ovlash uchun qurilgan.


Boston choy partiyasi – Amerika tarixini o'zgartirgan voqea

Boston choy partiyasida Ozodlik o'g'illari Mohawk hindulari qiyofasida yashiringan. Mana bu mashhur voqea haqida.

Boston choy partiyasida Ozodlik o'g'illari moxawk hindulari qiyofasida yashiringan. Mana bu mashhur voqea haqida ko'proq …

Amerikalik mustamlakachilar Buyuk Britaniyaga qarshi uyushtirgan norozilik namoyishi, unda amerikalik kolonistlar Boston bandargohidagi kemalardagi ko'plab choy g'isht qutilarini vayron qilishgan, tarixda shunday nomlangan. Boston choy partiyasi.

Sabab

Bu voqea Buyuk Britaniyaning Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasi Angliyada sota olmaydigan katta choy zaxiralarida o'tirgani sababli ro'y berdi, shu sababli u deyarli bankrot bo'ldi. Hukumat aralashdi va 1773 yildagi Choy to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qildi, bu kompaniyaga tovarlarini koloniyalarga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri eksport qilish huquqini berdi. Shunday qilib, kompaniya endi amerikalik savdogarlarni sotishi va kolonial choy savdosini monopollashtirishi mumkin edi.

Bu harakat ko'p sabablarga ko'ra yallig'lanishga aylandi. Birinchisi, bu kuchli monopoliyaning o'rnini bosishidan va bankrot bo'lishidan qo'rqqan nufuzli mustamlakachi savdogarlarni g'azablantirdi. Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasi bilan savdo -sotiqdan chetlatilganlar orasida yana norozilik paydo bo'ldi va ba'zi amerikalik savdogarlarga choy sotish uchun franchayzing berishga qaror qildi. Biroq, muhim narsa shundaki, Choy akti vakillik qilmasdan soliq to'lash masalalariga bo'lgan Amerika ehtiroslarini qayta tikladi. Lord Shimoliy kolonistlarning ko'pchiligi yangi qonunni ma'qul ko'radi, degan fikrda edi, chunki u vositachilarni olib tashlash orqali iste'molchilarga choy narxini pasaytiradi. Bunday bo'lmasligi kerak edi. Buning o'rniga kolonistlar choyni boykot qilishdi. Bu boykot aholining katta qatlamlarini safarbar qildi, shuningdek, ommaviy ommaviy noroziliklarning umumiy tajribasida koloniyalarni birlashtirishga yordam berdi. Ayollar ham namoyishga qo'shilishdi.

Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasi yuklarini mustamlaka portlariga qo'nishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik rejalari tuzildi. Boston portidan tashqari, boshqa joylardagi agentlar iste'foga chiqishga ko'ndirildi, choyning yangi partiyalari Angliyaga qaytarildi yoki omborga qo'yildi. Bostondagi agentlar iste'foga chiqishdan bosh tortishdi va qirollik gubernatori qo'llab -quvvatlashi bilan qarshiliklarga qaramasdan, kiruvchi yuklarni qo'ndirishga tayyorgarlik ko'rildi. Ular portdagi uchta kemani orqaga qaytarishga qodir bo'lmaganda, dramani sahnalashtirdilar.

Voqea

Choy 1773 yil 16 -dekabr, payshanba kuni erga tushishi kerak edi. Aynan mana shu taqdirli kechada, Mohawk hindulari niqobini kiygan Ozodlik O'g'illari katta norozilik namoyishini tark etib, Griffin va iskala tomon yo'l olishdi. Bu erda uchta kema joylashgan edi Dartmut, yangi kelganlar Eleanorva Qunduz edi. Chashka choynaklari hindularning uzoq qirg'oqchiligini isbotlab, palubadan yuqori samaradorlik bilan olib kelingan. Keyin qutilar ochildi va choy bortga tashlandi. Ertalabgacha Boston bandargohi suvlariga kamida 10000 funt sterlingga baholangan 90,000 funt choy tashildi. Tasodifan sindirib tashlangan choy va qulfdan tashqari, hamma narsa buzilmagan. Bu voqea choyni Boston atrofidagi sohillarda bir necha hafta yuvinishiga olib keldi.

Reaksiya

Kutilganidek, bu harakat inglizlar va mustamlakachilar tomonidan tanqid qilindi. Benjamin Franklin vayron bo'lgan choyni qaytarish kerakligini aytdi va hatto uni o'z puliga to'lashni taklif qildi. Britaniya hukumati Boston portlarini yopdi, ular boshqa qonunlarni ham joriy qildilar Chidab bo'lmaydigan xatti -harakatlar yoki Majburiy harakatlar yoki Jazo choralari. Ammo bu ba'zi kolonistlarni Peggi Styuartni yoqish kabi shunga o'xshash harakatlardan qaytara olmadi. Bu oxir -oqibat Amerika inqilobiga olib kelgan Boston choy partiyasi edi. Bu vaqtda, Boston va mamlakatning boshqa hududlarida ko'plab kolonistlar norozilik sifatida choy ichmaslikka va'da berishdi. Buning o'rniga ular ichishga kirishdilar Balzam giperioni, boshqa o'simlik echimlari va qahva. Yaxshiyamki, choy ichishga qarshi bu ijtimoiy norozilik uzoq davom etmadi.


Boston choy partiyasi xronologiyasi

Boston choy partiyasi Amerika inqilobi paytida Bostonda bo'lib o'tgan namoyish edi. Namoyish 1773 yildagi Choy aktiga qarshi edi. Bu Amerika inqilobida muhim voqea bo'ldi va inqilobiy urushning kuchayishiga hissa qo'shdi.

Boston choy partiyasining vaqt jadvalini bilish juda muhim, chunki bu nima uchun va qanday sodir bo'lganligi va bunga nima sabab bo'lganini yaxshiroq tushunishga imkon beradi.

Quyida Boston choy partiyasining xronologiyasi keltirilgan:

  • 29 iyun kuni parlament koloniyalarda sotiladigan ingliz tovarlariga qo'rg'oshin, qog'oz, bo'yoq, shisha va choyga import solig'i soladigan Townshend aktlarini qabul qiladi.
  • 12 aprel kuni Parlament Taunshend aktlarining choyga solinadigan soliqdan tashqari ko'pgina bandlarini bekor qiladi.
  • Dekabr oyida Benjamin Franklin Londonda Massachusets shtati Vakillar palatasining agenti sifatida yashaydi va anonim jo'natuvchidan Massachusets gubernatori Tomas Xatchinson va leytenant -gubernator Endryu Oliverning Britaniya rasmiylariga yozgan xatlaridan iborat paket oladi. Maktublarda Britaniya hukumatiga mustamlakachilik hukumatini viloyat yig'inlaridan mustaqil qilish va mustamlakachining fuqarolik erkinliklarini bosqichma -bosqich kamaytirish orqali soliqlarga qarshi mustamlakachilik qo'zg'olonlarini boshqarishni tavsiya etishadi. Franklin maktublarni Samuel Adamsga yuboradi va Adamsga ularni Massachusets shtat yozishmalar qo'mitasiga ko'rsatishga ruxsat beradi.
  • 27-aprel kuni parlament choy kompaniyasini Britaniya kompaniyalari tomonidan Shimoliy Amerika koloniyalariga bojsiz jo'natish imkonini beradigan "Choy to'g'risidagi qonun" ni qabul qildi, shu sababli kompaniyalarga uni arzonroq narxda sotishga ruxsat berdi, lekin choyga solingan soliq saqlanib qoldi.
  • 10 may kuni Choy akti qirol roziligini oladi (hukmron monarxning rasmiy roziligi).
  • 2 -iyun kuni Tomas Kushing Xatchinson va Oliverning sizib chiqqan maktublarini Birinchi Kontinental Kongressga taqdim etadi, ular Britaniya tojidan Xatchinson va Oliverni olib tashlashni so'rashga qaror qilishadi.
  • Iyun oyining o'rtalarida, Boston gazetasida oshkor qilingan maktublar shaharda shov-shuvga sabab bo'ladi.
  • Oktyabr oyining boshida mustamlaka gazetasi xabar berishicha, Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasi Filadelfiya, Nyu -York va Bostonga har biri 600 ta sandiq ingliz choyi yuboradi.
  • 3 -noyabr kuni Ozodlik o'g'illari peshin vaqtida Ozodlik daraxti ostida ommaviy yig'ilish o'tkazib, mahalliy yuk oluvchilarga (Britaniya hukumati tomonidan choyni qabul qilish va sotish uchun tayinlangan maxsus agentlarga) ingliz choyini kelganda yuborishni buyurdilar. Boston portida. Uchrashuvda 500 ga yaqin odam qatnashadi, ular orasida Jon Adams, Samuel Adams, Jon Xankok va Jozef Uorren bor, lekin yuk oluvchilar bu talabni bajarishdan bosh tortishadi.
  • 5 -noyabr kuni Faneuil -Xollda bu masala bo'yicha boshqa uchrashuv bo'lib o'tadi, lekin qabul qiluvchilar haligacha talabni bajarishdan bosh tortishadi.
  • 18 -noyabr kuni Faneuil -Xollda yana bir uchrashuv bo'lib o'tadi, unda qabul qiluvchilar haligacha talabni bajarishdan bosh tortishadi va ular himoyalanish uchun Uilyam qal'asiga (Fort Mustaqillik) qochishadi.
  • 28 -noyabr kuni 114 ta sandiq ingliz choyini olib ketadigan Dartmut savdo kemasi Boston bandargohiga etib keldi, lekin kolonistlar choy solig'i tufayli uni Griffin portiga joylashtirishga ruxsat bermadilar.

Boston choy partiyasi, Boston qirg'inida 1895 yilda Burgoyinning taslim bo'lishida tasvirlangan rasm.
  • 29 -noyabr kuni kolonistlar Faneuil -Xollda kema haqida yig'ilish o'tkazishni rejalashtirishdi, lekin u ko'plab tomoshabinlarni qabul qilish uchun Old Janubiy yig'ilish uyiga ko'chirildi. Uchrashuvda kolonistlar choy solig'i to'lanmasligiga rozi bo'lishdi va ular iskala qo'riqlash va kemalarni joylashtirishni oldini olish uchun 25 kishini tayinlashdi.
  • 30 -noyabr kuni mustamlakachilar Old -Janubiy yig'ilish uyida uchrashib, Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasining xabarini tinglaydilar. Kompaniya choyni parlamentdan qo'shimcha ko'rsatmalar kelmaguncha omborda saqlashni taklif qiladi, lekin mustamlakachilar bu fikrni rad etishadi, chunki bu choy tushganidan keyin soliq to'lanishi kerak edi. Sherif Stiven Grinlef gubernator Xatchinsondan yig'ilishni noqonuniy deb e'lon qildi va olomonni tarqatib yuborishni buyurdi.
  • 1 -dekabr kuni boshqa yuk tashuvchi kema, Eleanor, bir necha kundan keyin ingliz choyi yukini, keyin esa boshqa yuk kemasi "Beaver" ni olib keladi. Uchta kemada jami 342 ta sandiq choy tashiladi.
  • 8 -dekabr kuni gubernator Xatchinson kemaning portdan chiqishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun choralar ko'radi va portga kiraverishda ikkita qurolli kemani joylashtiradi va Uilyam qal'asi qo'mondoni polkovnik Lesliga qal'aning to'plarini yuklashni buyuradi. har qanday kemalar uning ruxsatisiz portni tark etadi.
  • 14 -dekabr kuni Old South Meeting House -da, soat 14:00 da, boshqa uchrashuv bo'lib o'tadi, unda Dartmut va Qunduz egasining o'g'li Frensis Rotch bojxona kollektoridan o'z kemalarini Angliyaga qaytarib yuborish uchun ruxsat so'rashni buyuradi. choy. Javob kutish uchun yig'ilish 16 dekabrga qoldirildi.
  • 16 dekabr kuni ertalab Rotchga bojxona kollektoridan o'z kemalarini Angliyaga qaytarishga ruxsat berilmagan. O'sha kuni ertalab Old South Meeting House -da yig'ilish bo'lib, 5000 dan ortiq odam qatnashadi. Rotch gubernator Xatchinsondan o'z kemasini Angliyaga qaytarish uchun ruxsat so'rashni buyurdi. Javobni kutish uchun uchrashuv soat 15: 00ga qoldirildi.
  • 16 dekabr kuni soat 18:00 dan biroz oldin, Rotch hokimning iltimosini rad etgani haqidagi xabar bilan uchrashuvga qaytadi. Gubernatorning javobi e'lon qilingandan so'ng, Samuel Adams ko'tariladi va "Bu uchrashuv mamlakatni qutqarish uchun boshqa hech narsa qila olmaydi", deb aytdi. To'satdan urush ovozi eshitiladi va tubjoy amerikaliklar kiyingan katta guruh erkaklar: "Griffinga va isrofga!" Bugun kechqurun Boston -Harbor choynak ”va yig'ilish uyidan chiqing.
  • 16 -dekabr kuni soat 18:00 dan 21:00 gacha bir necha yuz ishtirokchilar kichik qayiqlarda Boston -Harborda joylashgan uchta yuk kemasiga chiqishadi, bortga ko'tarilishadi va portga 90.000 funt choy quyishadi.

Boston -Harborda choyni yo'q qilish, AQShning rasm tarixida chop etilgan rasm, taxminan 1877 yil
  • 17 -dekabrda Xat yozishmalar qo'mitasi tunda sodir bo'lgan voqealar haqida hisobot yozadi va Pol Revere bilan ma'lumot almashish uchun Nyu -York va Filadelfiyaga yuboradi.
  • 20 va 23 dekabrda mahalliy choy sotuvchilar, qabul qiluvchilardan tashqari, yig'ilish o'tkazadilar va 1774 yil 20 yanvardan keyin boshqa choy sotmaslikka va undan oldin hech qanday choy sotib olmaslikka ovoz berishadi.
  • 20 yanvarda Xat yozishmalar qo'mitasi King ko'chasida gulxan yoqib, u erda etti yuz funt choyni yoqishadi.
  • Shuningdek, 20 -yanvar kuni Jon Xankokning "Xeyli" kemasi Boston choy partiyasi haqidagi yangiliklarni olib, Londonga, Angliyaga etib boradi.
  • 22 -yanvar kuni Londondagi bir nechta gazetalarda Boston choy partiyasi haqidagi yangiliklar e'lon qilinadi.

Boston choy partiyasi ishtirokchilari Mohawks qiyofasida, Boston qirg'inida Burgoyinning taslim bo'lishiga bag'ishlangan rasm, 1895 yil
  • 29 yanvar kuni Benjamin Franklin Londondagi Maxfiylik Kengashi bilan uchrashib, Massachusets shtatining Assambleyasi gubernatori Xatchinson va gubernator Endryu Oliverga qarshi shikoyatlarini tushuntirib berdi, lekin Xatchinsonga maktub yuborib, Xatchinsonga g'azabini qo'zg'atgani uchun uni ayblashdi. Boston Franklin Amerika koloniyalarining pochta direktorining o'rinbosari lavozimidan ozod qilindi.
  • 8 -mart kuni kolonistlar Massachusht shtatining Boston shahridagi Fortune -ga o'tirishadi, u erda xususiy savdogar sotib olgan 28 ta sandiq ingliz choyi ko'tariladi va choyni to'kib tashlaydi.
  • 25 -mart kuni parlament Boston porti to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qiladi, unga ko'ra, Boston porti yopiladi, 1 -iyundan mustamlakachilar Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasiga ular yo'q qilgan choyi uchun pul to'laguncha.
  • 10 may kuni Boston porti to'g'risidagi qonun Bostonga (Massachusets) etib keladi.
  • 13 mayda general Tomas Geyj Bostonga keladi va Massachusets ko'rfazining yangi gubernatori lavozimini egallaydi.
  • 20 may kuni parlament Massachusets shtati hukumati va adliya boshqaruvi to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qiladi. Massachusets shtati hukumati to'g'risidagi qonun 1691 yilgi Massachusets ko'rfazi provintsiyasining nizomini to'xtatadi va koloniya boshqaruvini gubernator Tomas Geyjga beradi. Adliya boshqarmasi to'g'risidagi qonun gubernatorga, agar ayblanuvchi Massachusets shtatida adolatli sud qaroriga kelmasligini his qilsa, Britaniya imperiyasi hududida ayblanuvchi qirollik amaldorlarini sud jarayonini o'tkazishga buyruq berishga ruxsat beradi.
  • 31 may kuni, oxirgi kuni kemalarga Boston bandargohidan chiqishga ruxsat berildi, sobiq gubernator Tomas Xatchinson oilasi bilan Angliyaga jo'nadi.

Boston -Harborda suzayotgan choy, "Boston choy partiyasi" da nashr etilgan rasm, 1773 yil 1773 yil, va#8221 H.W. MakVikar, Jozefina Pollard, taxminan 1882 yil
  • 2 -iyun kuni Bostonga Massachusets ko'rfazidagi 1691 yilgi nizom to'xtatilgani va koloniya hukumati general Geyj qo'lida ekanligi haqidagi xabar keladi, u barcha mahalliy magistrlar va sheriflarni tayinlaydi. Geyj Massachusets shtatining assambleyasini tarqatib yuboradi.
  • 27 fevralda parlament kelishuv qarorini qabul qiladi, unda har bir mustamlaka o'z hissasini qo'shmoqchi "Umumiy himoya"Parlamentga savdolarni tartibga solish bundan mustasno, boshqa soliqlardan ozod qilinadi.
  • Parlament 1778 yildagi "Mustamlakalarni soliqqa tortish to'g'risida" gi qonunni qabul qiladi, unda Parlament Britaniya Amerika yoki Britaniya G'arbiy Hindistondagi koloniyalarning hech birida daromad olish uchun hech qanday boj, soliq yoki baho yuklamasligini e'lon qiladi.

Manbalar:
Wall, Caleb A. 1773 yil 16 -dekabr tarixiy Boston choy partiyasi. F.S. Blanchard & amp Co, 1896 yil.
Allison, Robert J. Boston choy partiyasi. Hamdo'stlik nashrlari, 2007 yil.
"Benjamin Franklin ba'zi maktublardan voz kechdi va amalda kimnidir o'ldirdi." Yangi Angliya tarixiy jamiyati, newenglandhistoricalsociety.com/benjamin-franklin-steals-letters-practically-gets-someone-killed
Farrand, Maks. "Choyni soliqqa tortish, 1767-1773." Amerika tarixiy sharhi, 1898 yil yanvar. 3 -jild, 2 -son, 266 - 269 -betlar, jstor.org/stable/pdf/1832503.pdf


Boston choy partiyasi, inqilobiy urushning asosiy voqeasi

Boston choy partiyasi inqilobiy urushning asosiy voqeasi edi. Bu harakat bilan kolonistlar inqilobning zo'ravon qismini boshladilar. Bu mustamlakachilarning o'z hukumatiga qarshi zo'ravonlik bilan isyon ko'tarish uchun qilgan birinchi urinishi edi. Quyidagi voqealar qor to'pi effekti bilan yaratilgan. U erda barcha mustamlakachilar birinchi marta anglashdilarki, ularga Britaniya hukumati tomonidan noto'g'ri munosabatda bo'lishdi. Bu har bir mustamlakachining boshida turgan mustaqillik orzusi sari muhim qadam edi. Hammasi yangi dunyoda yangi hayot boshlash uchun o'z ona yurtidan uchib ketishdi, lekin Britaniya hukumati ularni boshqarish orqali ularga imkoniyat bermadi. Ko'proq o'qing & gt & gt


Boston choy partiyasi - tarix

16 -dekabr kuni kechqurun, Samuel Adamsni eshitish uchun minglab bo'stonliklar va atrofdagi qishloqlardan fermerlar Old Janubiy yig'ilish uyiga to'planishdi. Adams gubernatorni kemada choy bilan ketmoqchi bo'lgan kemalarga ruxsat berishni rad etgani uchun qoraladi. Uning nutqidan keyin olomon qirg'oqqa yo'l oldi. Olomon orasidan hindlar libosida kiyingan 50 kishi paydo bo'ldi. Ular portga o'rnatilgan uchta kemaga o'tirishdi va kemaga 90 000 funt choy tashladilar.

Mustamlakachilar va inglizlar o'rtasidagi munosabatlar Gaspi voqeasidan so'ng, inglizlar yana bir bor noto'g'ri hisoblab chiqqach, zo'rg'a tiklandi. Ular amerikaliklarni choy importi bo'yicha monopoliyani qabul qilishga majbur qilishdi. Choy uchun yagona manba Britaniyaning Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasi bo'lishi kerak edi. Bundan tashqari, ular Britaniya hukumatining tarafdorlari bo'lgan Bostondagi savdogarlarga ushbu choy kompaniyasi vakili bo'lish uchun maxsus shartnoma berishdi. Shikastlanish haqoratini qo'shib, choy inglizlar Townshend qonunini bekor qilganda tariflarni olib tashlamagan.

Kolonistlar choy importiga qarshi birlashdilar. Thomas Hutchison wrote to Lord Dartmouth: “The people of Boston, and all the neighboring towns, are raised to the highest degree of opposition to the duty on tea."

On November 3rd, members of the Sons of Liberty met at the liberty tree in Boston and marched to the offices of the merchants that represented the East India Company. They demanded that the firm refuse to import the tea when it arrived. When the merchants refused, a mob threatened them.

Throughout the colonies, tea agents under pressure from local patriots, resigned their commissions to sell tea. In most parts of the colonies the ships carrying tea turned around before arriving in America. In Boston, however, the governor was committed to forcing the issue and landing the tea.

Four ships were due to arrive in Boston with tea. The first was the Dartmouth. One of the ships was lost in a storm on the way. Governor Hutchison ordered the British Naval Commander to block the entrance to the harbor to stop the ships from departing. Large crowds met at Faneuil Hall, at a meeting called by Samuel Adams, on November 29, 1773. The colonists demanded that the tea be returned. The ship's captain finally agreed. However, the governor would not hear of it. On December 16th, the last day the tea could be downloaded and tax paid or the cargo forfeited, 7,000 people gathered at another meeting held Old South Meeting House. Once again, this meeting was called by Samuel Adams. It was clear the governor would not budge. Samuel Adams announced at the meeting they could do nothing more to save the country.

As the meeting ended, a group of men made their way to the harbor dressed as Mohawk Indians. In small boats, they rowed out to the ships holding the tea. The men demanded access to the tea, which they promptly dumped into Boston Harbor. The tea would not be landed and the tax was not paid.


10 Things You May Not Know About the Boston Tea Party

1. The “tea partiers” were not protesting a tax hike, but a corporate tax break.
The protestors who caffeinated Boston Harbor were railing against the Tea Act, which the British government enacted in the spring of 1773. Rather than inflicting new levies, however, the legislation actually reduced the total tax on tea sold in America by the East India Company and would have allowed colonists to purchase tea at half the price paid by British consumers. The Tea Act, though, did leave in place the hated three-pence-per-pound duty enacted by the Townshend Acts in 1767, and it irked colonists as another instance of taxation legislation being passed by Parliament without their input and consent. The principle of self-governance, not the burden of higher taxes, motivated political opposition to the Tea Act.

2. Commercial interests, perhaps more than political principles, motivated many protestors.
The Tea Act was a government bailout for a company on the brink of financial collapse, the flailing East India Company, which was deemed to be, in modern terms, “too big to fail.” The legislation gave the East India Company a virtual monopoly on the American tea trade, allowing it to bypass colonial merchants as middlemen and to even undercut the price of smuggled Dutch tea, which was widely consumed in the colonies. Thus, the Tea Act directly threatened the vested commercial interests of Boston’s wealthy merchants and smugglers, such as John Hancock, who fomented the revolt.

3. George Washington condemned the Boston Tea Party.

Although America’s foremost Revolutionary figure wrote in June 1774 that “the cause of Boston𠉮ver will be considered as the cause of America,” he strongly voiced his disapproval of “their conduct in destroying the Tea.” Washington, like many other elites, held private property to be sacrosanct and believed the perpetrators should compensate the East India Company for the damages.

4. It was the British reaction to the Boston Tea Party, not the event itself, that rallied Americans.
Many Americans shared Washington’s sentiment and viewed the Boston Tea Party as an act of vandalism by radicals rather than a heroic patriotic undertaking. There was less division among the colonists, however, about their opposition to the measures passed by the British government in 1774 to punish Boston. The legislation closed the port of Boston until damages were paid, annulled colonial self-government in Massachusetts and expanded the Quartering Act. Colonists referred to the measures as the “Intolerable Acts,” and they led to the formation of the first Continental Congress.

5. For decades, the identities of participants were shrouded in secrecy.
The band of protestors was tight-lipped. Even after American independence, they refused to reveal their identities, fearing they could still face civil and criminal charges as well as condemnation from elites for engaging in mob behavior and the wanton destruction of private property. Even today, only the names of some of the participants are known.

6. The event wasn’t dubbed the 𠇋oston Tea Party” until a half-century later.
For years, Bostonians blandly referred to the protest as “the destruction of the tea.” The earliest newspaper reference to the 𠇋oston Tea Party” doesn’t appear until 1826. In the 1830s, two books𠅊 Retrospect of the Tea-Party and Traits of the Tea Party—popularized the moniker and cemented it in popular culture.

7. There was a second Boston Tea Party.
Three months after the Boston Tea Party, Bostonians once again sent tea splashing when 60 disguised men boarded the Fortune in March 1774, forced the crew below deck and dumped tea chests into the harbor. The sequel wasn’t quite as impressive as the original, however, as only 30 chests were sent overboard.

8. Subsequent “tea parties” were held in other colonies.

Tea Act protests spread to other colonies throughout 1774. In cities such as New York, Annapolis and Charleston, South Carolina, patriots dumped tea off ships or burned it in protest.

9. The financial loss was significant.
It’s estimated that the protestors tossed more than 92,000 pounds of tea into Boston Harbor. That’s enough to fill 18.5 million teabags. The present-day value of the destroyed tea has been estimated at around $1 million.

10. One “tea partier” appeared to rise from the dead.

After being knocked unconscious by a falling tea crate in the hold of a ship, John Crane was reportedly thought to be dead and hidden by his compatriots under a pile of wood shavings in a nearby carpenter’s shop. He awoke hours later, however, and was the only man harmed in the Boston Tea Party.


What caused the Boston Tea Party?

Many factors including “taxation without representation,” the 1767 Townshend Revenue Act, and the 1773 Tea Act.
In simplest terms, the Boston Tea Party happened as a result of “taxation without representation”, yet the cause is more complex than that. The American colonists believed Britain was unfairly taxing them to pay for expenses incurred during the French and Indian War. Additionally, colonists believed Parliament did not have the right to tax them because the American colonies were not represented in Parliament.
Since the beginning of the 18th century, tea had been regularly imported to the American colonies. By the time of the Boston Tea Party, it has been estimated American colonists drank approximately 1.2 million pounds of tea each year. Britain realized it could make even more money off of the lucrative tea trade by imposing taxes onto the American colonies. In effect, the cost of British tea became high, and, in response, American colonists began a very lucrative industry of smuggling tea from the Dutch and other European markets. These smuggling operations violated the Navigation Acts which had been in place since the middle of the 17th century. The smuggling of tea was undercutting the lucrative British tea trade. In response to the smuggling, in 1767 Parliament passed the Indemnity Act, which repealed the tax on tea and made British tea the same price as the Dutch. The Indemnity Act greatly cut down on American tea smuggling, but later in 1767 a new tax on tea was put in place by the Townshend Revenue Act. The act also taxed glass, lead, oil, paint, and paper. Due to boycotts and protests, the Townshend Revenue Act taxes on all commodities except tea were repealed in 1770. In 1773, the Tea Act was passed and granted the British East India Company a monopoly on tea sales in the American colonies. The smuggling of tea grew rampant and was a lucrative business venture for American colonists, such as John Hancock and Samuel Adams. The Townshend Revenue Act tea tax remained in place despite proposals to have it waived. American colonists were outraged over the tea tax. They believed the Tea Act was a tactic to gain colonial support for the tax already enforced. The direct sale of tea by agents of the British East India Company to the American colonies undercut the business of colonial merchants. The smuggled tea became more expensive than the British East India Company tea. Smugglers like John Hancock and Samuel Adams were trying to protect their economic interests by opposing the Tea Act, and Samuel Adams sold the opposition of British tea to the Patriots on the pretext of the abolishment of human rights by being taxed without representation.


The Tea Party

The biggest shipment arrived in Griffin’s wharf, in Boston on or just before November 29, 1773.

The royal governor Thomas Hutchinson had no intention of letting the colonists force the ships to return to England, and due to the Boycott, the dockworkers refused to unload the ship. He held the ships in port, demanding that the cargo be unloaded and customs duties paid.

But the colonists, already stirred to action, were unwilling to bear the stalemate.

On December 16, “there was a meeting of the citizens of the county of Suffolk, convened at one of the churches in Boston, for the purpose of consulting on what measures might be considered expedient to prevent the landing of the tea, or secure the people from the collection of the duty. At that meeting a committee was appointed to wait on Governor Hutchinson, and request him to inform them whether he would take any measures to satisfy the people on the object of the meeting.” 1

The Governor promised an answer by 5 pm, but when the appointed time came, the committee met at the Governor’s house, and he was missing.”Let every man do his duty, and be true to his country,” 2 cried the members and dissolved the meeting.

Boston Tea Party picture by Sarony and Major, 1846 | Public domain image

The Events of the Boston Tea Party

That night, over 100 men including the Sons of Liberty dressed in “Indian” garb, or rather, the poncho and soot streaks soldiers wore during the French and Indian War. They armed themselves with hatchets, axes, and pistols, and sneaked aboard the ships.

Accounts actually vary from 30 to 130. Bostonteapartyship.com maintains a list of 116 names culled from various historical reports.

An observer of the Boston Tea Party, John Andrews wrote the following in 1773:

They say the actors were Indians… Whether they were or not to a transient observer they appear’d as such, being cloth’d in blankets with the heads muffled and copper color’d countenances, each being arm’d with a hatchet or ax, and pair pistols, nor was their dialect different from what I conceive these geniusses to speak, as their jargon was unintelligible to all but themselves. 3

Three ships with their cargo of precious teas lay in Boston harbor, their captains unaware of the colonists’ approach.

The clothing was both to keep their identities hidden (because they were committing a treasonous crime) and symbolic: to show England that they were beginning to identify themselves as Americans, not British subjects.

On reaching the pier, they divided into three groups and several men took charge. No one knew the names of their co-conspirators, nor did they know the names of the other commanders besides their own. They boarded the ships and demanded the keys to the hatch from the captains. The men were under strict orders to cause no harm to anyone and to carry out the rebellious act in an oxymoronic orderly fashion. Soon the chopping of boxes could be heard on the sleeping ships. The chests were torn open and the contents thrown into the Boston Harbor. Tea leaves scattered everywhere.

Some of the patriots tried grabbed up some of the loose tea and stuffed it into their pockets for their own families and personal use. The Sons tried to stop them, but at least one man managed to escape their custody and run through the crowd with his pockets stuffed with tea, even though each person either kicked or hit him as he passed by. Another man, much older, was seen filling his hat with tea, but the Sons grabbed his hat and wig and threw them overboard. Because of his age, he was allowed to escape.

No one was hurt, and aside from the tea, the only damage recorded was one broken padlock. The ships and their crews were unharmed and the Sons of Liberty pulled off the organized protest without being injured or arrested except for one man. Just as quickly as they had come, the men were gone.

We then quietly retired to our several places of residence, without having any conversation with each other, or taking any measures to discover who were our associates nor do I recollect of our having had the knowledge of the name of a single individual concerned in that affair, except that of Leonard Pitt, the commander of my division, whom I have mentioned. There appeared to be an understanding that each individual should volunteer his services, keep his own secret, and risk the consequence for himself. No disorder took place during that transaction, and it was observed at that time that the stillest night ensued that Boston had enjoyed for many months. 4

In their wake lay almost 100,000 pounds of tea, worth 9,000 pounds sterling, or almost $1.5 million in today’s money.

This act became known as the Boston Tea Party.

Boston Tea Party engraving by W.D. Cooper in his book The History of North America from 1789 | Public domain image.

The following morning, boats were sent out to beat the remaining floating tea down with paddles until it was completely drenched and unusable.

Who Was Involved in the Boston Tea Party?

The most well-known name involved in the Boston Tea Party was that of Paul Revere. However, several other participants were noteworthy.

Samuel Cooper, just 16 in 1773, would go on to become a major in the continental army and fight numerous battles. George Hewes, age 31, had been injured in the Boston Massacre after being struck by a rifle. He led one of the parties and wrote an account of the raid …

It was now evening, and I immediately dressed myself in the costume of an Indian, equipped with a small hatchet, which I and my associates denominated the tomahawk, with which, and a club, after having painted my face and hands with coal dust in the shop of a blacksmith, I repaired to Griffin’s wharf, where the ships lay that contained the tea. When I first appeared in the street after being thus disguised, I fell in with many who were dressed, equipped and painted as I was, and who fell in with me and marched in order to the place of our destination. (The Boston Tea Party Historical Society, from which we obtained this quote, has extensive information on the colonial raid.)

George Hewes was rejected as a soldier and did not fight in the revolutionary war. Thomas Crafts, Jr., however, another participant in the Boston Tea Party, became a member of Major Paddock’s famous Paddock’s Artillery Company and attained the rank of colonel in the continental army.

The patriot organization, the Sons of Liberty, provided the most participants that November night. It’s also fascinating that of those involved in the protest whose ages are known, two-thirds were under 20 years of age.

Final Comments

The Boston Tea Party was an act of rebellion from which the strained relationship between Britain and the colonies would never recover. The captains of the three ships were summoned to the privy council, but were unable to identify any of the people involved with the Boston Tea Party. The Coercive Acts (or “Intolerable”) acts followed swiftly to punish the colony of Massachusetts. The British closed down the port with the Boston Port Act until the city of Boston paid the damages. and within a year the Americans would convene the first Continental Congress to organize the protest against Britain.


Videoni tomosha qiling: ПРЕЗИДЕНТ МИРЗИЁЕВ, УЛУГБЕК АШУРНИ, САЙЛОВГА, ТАКЛИФ КИЛИНГ ОЧИКЛИК ВА ОШКОРАЛИК,БУ ДАВЛАТ, ЮРАГИДУР (Yanvar 2022).